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FOR 




-* T (A 

liiornia 

iona i COLLECTION OF REPORTS 

Llity 

ON 

'5.67 

3LSHEVISM IN RUSSIA 

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 




LIBRARY 
GOVT. PUBS, ROOM 



Abridged Edition of Parliamentary Paper, Russia No. 1 

(1919). 



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Ill 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



No. 



Name. 



Date. 



SUBJECT. 



Foreword 

1 Sir M. Findlay 

(Christiania) 

2 Sir E. Howard 

(Stockholm) 



3 Sir R. Paget 

(Copenhagen) 



5 Mr. Lindley . . 



(Archangel) 



6 Sir M. Findlay 



(Christiania) 



7 Mr. Alston 

(Vladivostock) 

8 Sir C. Eliot 

(Ekaterinburg) 



9 Mr. Alston 

(Vladivostock) 

10 Mr. Lockhart 



1 1 Report by Mrs. 



Mr. H- 



Mr. G 

13 Sir C. Eliot .. 

(Vladivostock) 



14 Lord Kilmarnock . . 
(Copenhagen) 
(1057) Wt. 2827/17(108) 10M 4/19 D.St. 



Telegraphic 
Telegraphic 

Telegraphic 
Telegraphic 

Telegraphic 
Telegraphic 



1918 
Aug. 19 
19 



Sept. 3 
9 

6 
17 



Telegraphic 



Telegraphic 



16 
Oct. 5 



Nov. 4 



10 



Nov. 



Telegraphic 



29 



27 



Arrest of British subjects in 
Petrograd and Moscow 

Armed raid on British con- 
sulate-general at Moscow, 
and arrest of British officials 
and other persons 

Murder of Captain Cromie by 
Soviet troops. Informs of 
telegram from Petrograd . . 

Wholesale arrests and execu- 
tions in Petrograd as a 
result of attempts on Bol- 
shevik leaders. Arrest of 
Mr. Lockhart. British sub- 
jects starving in prison . . 

Murder of Captain Cromie. 
Tribute to services which 
he rendered 

Arrest of British subjects in 
Moscow. Report by Nether- 
lands Minister on their 
present condition, and his 
efforts to obtain their re- 
lease. Funeral of Captain 
Cromie. Letter appealing 
for help from British sub- 
jects imprisoned in Fortress 
of Peter and Paul 

Report of murder of ex-Em- 
peror of Russia 

Informs of events leading up 
to the murder of the ex- 
Emperor and other mem- 
bers of the Imperial family. 
Transmits letter from tutor 
of Czarevitch 

Discovery of corpses in mine- 
pit at Alapaevsk of members 
of Imperial family. Fate 
of other members 

Oppression by Bolsheviks of 
their opponents, including 
Socialists, abolition of right 
of holding public meetings, 
suppression of all but Bol- 
shevik press, and of all 
liberty. General terrorism 

Peasants and the land. Indus- 
trial conditions. Repression 
of all non-Bolsheviks. Con- 
ditions in the prisons 

Conditions in factories at 
Moscow. Trade conditions 
generally. Anti-Bolshevik 
feeling among peasantry . . 

Report on the internal situa- 
tion. Growing discontent 
under Bolshevism 

Murder of ex-Empress of 
Russia and children sup- 
posed to have been com- 
mitted about the same 
time as the murder of the 
ex-Emperor 

Conditions in a factory in 
Petrograd . . 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



No. 


Name. 





Date. SUBJECT. 


Page 


15 


Memorandum 






Report of a British subject 












on conditions in Moscow. 












The " cold terror " 


28 


16 


Mr. Alston 


Telegraphic 


1919 


Starvation and terrorism in 






(Vladivostock) 




Jan. 2 Moscow. Wholesale murders 












and atrocities 


30 


18 


<> 


Telegraphic 


5 


Details of atrocities committed 












at Perm 


31 


20 


General Poole 




8 


Bolsheviks employing Chinese 












to kill officers and their 












families ' . . 


31 


21 


,, 




11 


Methods of Bolsheviks to allay 










hostility abroad while cam- 












paign against the social and 












economic life at home con- 












tinues. Treatment of 












women 


32 


22 


Mr. Alston . . 


Telegraphic 


14 Torture and murder in Ural 






(Vladivostock) 






towns. Murder of priests . . 


32 


23 


General Knox 


Telegraphic 


15 


Conditions at Perm. Russians 






(Omsk) 






obliged to join Bolsheviks 












to avoid starvation 


32 


25 


Colonel Wade 


Telegraphic 


19 


Chinese and Corean bandits 






(Warsaw) 






increasing in Bolshevik 












forces 


33 


26 


Mr. Alston 


Telegraphic 


23 


Conditions in Perm. Bol- 






(Vladivostock) 






sheviks a privileged class 












free to commit crime against 












other classes. Murder of a 












bishop. Closing of churches 


33 


27 


Lord Kilmarnock . . 




21 


Bolshevik Central Committees 






(Copenhagen) 






absorbing all power. In 












Moscow and Petrograd star- 












vation making the people 












physically incapable of re- 












sisting. Mobilisation of 












peasants. Severer discipline 












and continuance of execu- 












tions 


34 


28 


Mr. Alston 


Telegraphic 


Feb. 1 Murder and mutilation of a 






(Vladivostock) 




British workman in North- 










ern Urals 


35 


29 


. > 


Telegraphic 


2 Terrorism at Lisva. Effici- 










ency and energy of Bol- 










shevik regime 


35 


30 


i> 


Telegraphic 


4 


Revolt of peasants against 












Bolsheviks in Vyatka dis- 












trict. Their subsequent 












execution and execution of 













their families 


36 


31 


Memorandum 


. . 




Interviews with two British 












subjects from Moscow. Con- 










ditions in Moscow schools, 










factories and shops 


36 


33 


Mr. Alston 


Telegraphic 


8 


Small percentage of pro-Bol- 






(Vladivostock) 






sheviks among peasantry in 












Ekaterinburg district. Rus- 












sian working classes not 












represented by Bolsheviks, 












most of latter being Jews.. 












Murder of labourers owing 












to non-support of Bol- 












shevism 


38 


35 


Lord Kilmarnock . . 




6 


Bolshevik atrocities in Es- 






(Copenhagen) 






thonia 


39 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



No. 


Name. 





Date. 


SUBJECT. 


Pag 


36 


Mr. Alston 


Telegraphic 


1919 
Feb. 1 1 


Report from Acting British 






(Vladivostock) 






Consul at Ekaterinburg as 












to conditions there for past 












year 


42 


37 


Memorandum 






Interviews with two British 












subj ects returned from 












Petrograd in January. Bol- 












shevik oppression of the 












peasant proprietor. The 












Red Army. Dissatisfaction 












of workmen. Treatment of 


( 










the middle classes. Oppres- 












sion of Socialist parties on 












the ground of their being 












" counter - revolutionary." 












Bolshevik plans for world 












revolution 


43 


38 


General Knox 


Telegraphic 


Feb. 5 


Murder of Imperial family. 






(Omsk) 






Further details 


48 


39 


Mr. Alston 


Telegraphic 


10 


Bolshevik persecutions and 






(Vladivostock) 






crimes at Ekaterinburg. 












Reports evidence of wit- 












nesses. Oppression of clergy 


48 


40 


11 a ' 


Telegraphic 


13 


Murdeof Grand Duke Michael 












at Perm. Methods adopted 












by Bolsheviks against mer- 












chants 


49 


41 


Mr. Bell 


Telegraphic 


12 


Murder of Russian Grand 






(Helsingfors) 






Dukes in Peter and Paul 












fortress at Petrograd in 












January, 1919 ' . . 


49 


42 


Consul-General Bagge 


Telegraphic 


13 


Danger of famine in the 






(Odessa) 






Ukraine. Peasants beg for 












assurance that their pro- 












perty in land be declared 












inviolable before they will 












commence sowing seed 


50 


44 


Sir C. Eliot 


Telegraphic 


22 


Details of seventy-one murders 






(Vladivostock) 






and mutilations perpetrated 












at Ekaterinburg during 












1918 


50 


45 


>i 


Telegraphic 


24 


Details of further murders in 












Ekaterinburg district 


51 


46 


,. ,. 


Telegraphic 


24 


Appeal of Omsk Government 










to Democratic parties to 










unite against Bolsheviks . . 52 


47 


General Knox 


Telegraphic 


Mar. 2 


Report from Omsk. Condi- 




(Vladivostock) 






tions of railway transport. 










Wholesale issue of paper 










money. Bolshevik disci- 










pline stricter. Measures 










against religion . . . . i 52 


48 


i, 


Telegraphic 


4 


Ruin in Moscow : treatment 












of women, atrocities and 












mutilations in Eastern Rus- 












sia 


53 


49 


Sir C. Eliot 


Telegraphic 


5 


Bolshevik crimes in Perm. 






(Vladivostock) 






Torture of women and mur- 












der of priests in Omsk dis- 












tricts 


53 


50 


,, 


Telegraphic 


21 


All classes continue to come to 












the British Consulate at 












Ekaterinburg with evidence 












of murders and outrages. 












Reports show terrible ex- 












tent of murder and pillage 


55 


51 


Report by a British 




Jan. 


Bolshevik tyranny in South 






Chaplain at Odessa 






Russia in 1918 ,. . . ' ' 55 



VI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



No. 


Name. 


. 


Date. 


SUBJECT. 


Page 


52 


T?f v nnT't" Viv TVTr A4" 




1919 
Jan. 12 


Food conditions and prices in 














Moscow 


56 


53 


Lord Kilmarnock . . 




Feb. 17 


Report on Bolshevik atroci- 






(Copenhagen) 






ties in Esthonia. " Blood 












bath in Walk " 


57 


54 


TJ j. -L TVT-t- T^" 






Conditions in towns and 














country. Growing feeling 












among working classes 












against Bolsheviks. Reli- 












gious revival 


60 


55 


T? f}T-n-\t-4- VvTT ATf T 






Conditions around Moscow 














and in Vladimir Govern- 












ment. Disorganisation on 













railways. Apathy amongst 












anti-Bolshevik classes re- 












sulting from their treat- 












ment : their indifference 












to all but food questions. 












Punishment of families of 












officers who refuse to join 












Bolshevik army. Disease 












in Moscow. Private trading 












abolished 


62 


56 


Report by Rev. B. S. 






Results of Bolshevism in 






Lombard 






Northern Russia 


67 


57 


Memorandum 


< 




Interviews with returned 












British subjects 


69 


58 


Memorandum by 






Progress of Bolshevism in 






Mr. B 




Jan. 


Russia 


78 


59 


a n 




Mar. 


Present position of Bolshevism 


82 


60 


Memorandum 




Jan. 


Appreciation of the economic 












situation in Russia . . . 


84 


61 


Report 


Telegraphic 


Mar. 


Anti-Bolshevik outbreaks . . 


95 



APPENDIX. 

Extracts from the Russian press, p. 97. 



FOREWORD. 



THE following collection of reports from His Majesty's official 
representatives in Russia, from other British subjects who have recently 
returned from that country, and from independent witnesses of various 
nationalities, covers the period of the Bolshevik regime from the summer 
of 1918 to the present date. They are issued in accordance with a 
decision of the War Cabinet in January last. They are unaccompanied 
by anything in the nature either of comment or introduction, since 
they speak for themselves in the picture which they present of the 
principles and methods of Bolshevik rule, the appalling incidents by 
which it has been accompanied, the economic consequences which have 
flowed from it, and the almost incalculable misery which it has produced. 



2nd (abridged) Edition. 



A Collection of Reports on Bolshevism in Russia. 



No. 1. 

Sir M. Findlay to Mr. Balfour. (Received August 20.) 

(Telegraphic.) Christiania, August 19, 1918. 

I HAVE received following telegram dated the 9th August from 
Woodhouse and Cromie at Petrograd to General Poole : 

" British subjects have been arrested during the past two days 
without any charge having been made against them, but only two have 
been detained so far. We protested and asked for explanation. On 
5th August all British officials at Moscow were arrested, but the majority 
were subsequently released and are presumably now under house 
arrest. 

' Their probable evacuation was notified to us, and we were warned 
to be ready to leave with them, but as yet we have no definite news from 
them. Commissary threatens to intern all allied subjects. Please 
inform London of above, as we are not allowed to telegraph in any 
direction. Tell London also that up to the present all are well here. 
In Petrograd position of Soviet power is becoming rapidly untenable, 
and orders are being given for various units and places to be evacuated. 
That they are in touch with Germans is quite evident. A yacht is 
ready at Peterhof to take Lenin away." 



No. 2. 

Sir E. Howard to Mr. Balfour. (Received August 20.) 

(Telegraphic.) Stockholm, August 19, 1918. 

FOLLOWING is a summary of the more important points in a 
series of despatches from Mr. Wardrop, at Moscow : 

" August 5. About 4.30 this morning a band of ten armed men 
attacked consulate-general and demanded admittance. Without my 
authority one of the inmates of the house opened the door, being 
threatened with fire-arms. This was the fourth armed raid on the 
premises. 

" Guards left at 5.30 and local commissary expressed his regret 
at the incident. 

" During the morning I learnt of arrest of several British subjects, 
including Messrs. Armitage, Whitehead, William Cazalet, Hastie (over 
(1057) B 



seventy years old), North (chaplain), Beringer (Renter's agent), and Miss 
H. Adams, one of my staff. In the afternoon, while Mr. Lockhart was 
calling, another raid on the premises was made with warrant for arrest 
of staff. I protested and declared that I only yielded to force. Office 
was sealed in great detail, seals being attached to every drawer, to both 
safes, and to all receptacles for papers, also to outer doors to the office 
rooms. All the staff were then arrested, including Mr. Stevens, Mr. 
Douglas, and lady clerks, and conveyed to Soviet's police quarters in 
Tverskoi Boulevard. Mr. Lockhart, Captain Hicks and I were not 
arrested, as Chicherin had promised that consuls and military missions 
should not be arrested. Their staffs, however, had not been specifically 
mentioned. French military attache, General Lavergne, was liberated 
after short arrest. Staff were detained. Guards were stationed to 
watch my premises and I was left in my private apartments there. 
I do not regard failure to arrest myself and Mr. Lockhart as evidence of 
intention to treat us better than our staffs, but rather the contrary. 

" I do not regard Bolshevik detention of our nationals as aimed at 
deterring us from vigorous action in distant places, so much as intended 
to protect Bolshevik leaders on their fall. They are converting houses 
in centre of the city into improvised fortresses in the belief that there 
will be soon a serious rising, in which their Allied prisoners will serve 
as centres. Finally, if they regard all as lost they will probably hound 
populace on to massacre these prisoners. 

" August 6. Consul Stevens, Vice-Consuls Lowdon and Douglas 
released about 3 A.M., also North and others, and French Consul-General 
Grenard and French Consul Labonne, by efforts of Swedish colleague 
who spent the night in negotiations. 

" At 10 P.M. following still detained : 

" Vice-Consuls Whishaw, Greenep, and Jerram, passport officer 
Webster and his assistant, Gibson senior, Tamplin and Lingner of Lock- 
hart's staff, Fritz Mucukaln, and the Misses Galbally and Adams of 
my staff. Prisoners so far fairly comfortably housed and fed and 
allowed to associate with one another. Guards conciliatory. 

" I am allowed to go in and out, and Mr. Lockharj: and his remaining 
staff can visit me. 

" August 1 . I called at temporary prison and saw Greenep, 
Whishaw, and Jerram. They are well treated by their guards who 
are real Russians, unlike most of their leaders, who are either fanatics 
or Jewish adventurers like Trotsky or Radek. 

" All British and French women are now released. Also 
Mr. Beringer and others. 

" August 8. Whishaw, Greenep, Jerram, and Webster brought 
here this morning by efforts of my Swedish colleague. Whole staff 
of consulate-general now at liberty. 

"It is also suggested that during our stay at Petrograd we shall 
be under a Bolshevik guard. Evidently Bolsheviks are trying to prolong 
negotiations. City is on the whole quiet. All ex-officers under sixty 
are to report themselves this morning, probably with a view to their 
arrest, and there are rumours of wholesale arrest of clergy." 



No. 3. 

Sir R. Pagct to Mr. Balfour. (Received September 3.) 

(Urgent.) 

(Telegraphic.) Copenhagen, September 3, 1918. 

FOLLOWING report from Danish Minister at Petrograd has been 
communicated to me by Danish Government : 

" On 31st August the Government troops forced their way into 
the British Embassy, their entry to which was resisted by British 
naval attache, Captain Cromie, who, after having killed three soldiers, 
was himself shot. 

' The archives were sacked, and everything was destroyed. 

" Captain Cromie's corpse was treated in a horrible manner. 
Cross of St. George was taken from the body, and subsequently worn 
by one of the murderers. 

" English clergyman was refused permission to repeat prayers over 
the body. 

" French Military Mission was forced. A man named Mazon and 
a soldier and several Frenchmen were arrested. 

" Bolsheviks in the press openly incite to murder British and 
French. 

" It is urgently necessary that prompt and energetic steps be tajven." 



No. 4. 

Sir R. Paget to Mr. Balfour. (Received September 10.) 

(Telegraphic.) Copenhagen, September 9, 1918. 

I HAVE received telegram from Petrograd as follows : 

" Wholesale arrests and decapitations have resulted from attempt 
on Lenin and murder of Uritsky. Bolsheviks are arresting bourgeoisie, 
men, women, and children, having no connection with the authors 
of these attempts, on the plea that they are faced with conspirators. 

" According to official reports, more than 500 persons have been 
shot during the last three days without enquiry or sentence. Fresh 
executions are being prepared, and the press is full of blood-thirsty 
articles. 

" Lockhart was arrested and condemned to death, but at the last 
moment we succeeded in saving him ; 28 British, including British 
consul, and 1 1 French have been arrested at Petrograd. In the prisons 
conditions defy description. In fortress of Peter and Paul, where all 
the British are confined, prisoners have absolutely no food. In order 
to remedy this, we have now succeeded in forming an organisation. 
Every night executions take place without trial. Terrorism continues. 
Protest against these proceedings has been made verbally and in writing 
by foreign representatives, including Germans. List of more than 
1,000 hostages has been published by the Government, amongst whom 
are four Serbian officers, who will be shotif attempt on life of a commissary 
should be made." 

(1057) B 2 



No. 5. 

Mr. Lindley to Mr. Balfour. (Received September 11.) 

(Telegraphic.) Archangel, September 6, 1918. 

I HAVE just received news of murder of Captain Cromie by 
Bolsheviks, and accusations of latter against him. 

Fact is that gallant officer devoted his whole time at Petrograd 
to the service of his country. His first object was to prevent Baltic 
fleet falling into German hands ; he then helped in evacuating valuable 
stores, and latterly gave most of his attention to plans for preventing 
a German advance on Vologda. These activities, carried out for 
months in daily danger of his life, brought him more or less into co- 
operation with Russians hostile to Bolshevik regime and therefore 
claimed as reactionaries. 

His plans may very well have included destruction of certain 
bridges as Bolsheviks declare. In Captain Cromie, His Majesty has 
lost a most gallant, capable, and devoted servant. 



No. 6. 

Sir M. Findlay to Mr. Balfour. (Received September 18.) 

(Telegraphic.) Christiania, September 17, 1918. 

FOLLOWING is extract from a report by Netherlands Minister at 
Petrograd, the 6th September, received here to-day, on the situation in 
Russia, in particular as affecting British subjects and British interests 
under Minister's protection : 

" Sir, On 30th August I left for Moscow, largely in connection with 
negotiations for evacuation of British subjects from Russia. The 
same day Uritski Commissary at Petrograd, for combating counter- 
revolution, was assassinated by a Jewish student Kanegiesser, whose 
father is a wealthy engineer and holds a very good position at Petrograd. 
This murder was at once attributed by the Bolshevik authorities and 
Bolshevik press (only existing press in Russia) to French and English. 

' That same night Consul Woodhouse and Engineer-Commander 
Le Page were arrested at 1 A.M. in the street. Every effort was made 
the next day (31st August) by my secretary, M. van Niftrik, to obtain 
their release, and that of Consul Woodhouse was promised for the 
afternoon. 

" At 5 P.M. on the 31st August, when Consul Bosanquet and Acting 
Vice-Consul Kimens, who had been busy the whole day with M. van 
Niftrik in connection with his attempt to obtain release of the arrested 
and were heading to the Embassy and were near the Embassy building, 
they were warned not to approach the Embassy, told that it had been 
occupied by Red Guards, and that two persons had been killed. They 
at once decided to head back to find M. van Niftrik and asked him to 
endeavour to secure entry into the Embassy. While driving slowly 
away from Embassy their car was stopped by Red Guards in another 
car, one of whom levelled a revolver at them and told them to hold up 



their hands. They were searched and had to give their names and 
rank, but to their great surprise were allowed to proceed. M. van 
Niftrik drove with them to Gorokhovaya 2, headquarters of the Commis- 
sion for Combating Counter-Revolution, to which persons arrested are 
usually taken, and where Mr. Woodhouse was confined. He had a 
long interview with the commandant of Petrograd, Shatov, and strongly 
protested against the unheard of breach of International Law which 
had taken place, and demanded to be allowed to drive immediately to 
Embassy to be present at search there. Permission was refused by 
Shatov, who said that Embassy was being searched because authorities 
had documents proving conclusively that British Government was 
implicated in Uritski's murder. When they had left and their car 
was passing the Winter Palace, staff of British Consulate and of missions, 
and some civilians who were at Embassy when it was invaded, were 
seen walking under guard to No. 2 Gorokhovaya. 

" A meeting of neutral diplomatic corps was held that night upon 
the initiative of M. van Niftrik, at which the following points were 
submitted : 

' 1 . That immediate release of those arrested should be demanded. 
" ' 2. That it should be insisted upon that M. van Niftrik should 
be present at examination of arrested. 

' 3. That attention should be drawn to gross breach of inter- 
national law committed by armed occupation of the Embassy, 
which bore on the door a signed and sealed notice to the effect 
that it was under the protection of Netherlands Legation, 
and by refusal to allow M. van Niftrik to be present at the 
search.' 

' The meeting drew up a protest to be presented to the Soviet 
authorities at Moscow. 

" On the 1st September particulars were learnt as to the violation 
of Embassy. The Red Guards, under the direction of several commis- 
saries, had made their way into the Embassy at 5 P.M., and behaved 
with the greatest brutality. Captain Cromie, who had tried to bar 
their entrance, and had been threatened that he would be killed ' like 
a dog,' had fired, killing two men. He had then been shot himself, and 
died nearly instantaneously. The whole staff of the Consulate and 
Missions and some civilians accidentally present at the Embassy, had 
then been marched under escort to Gorokhovaya No. 2, where they 
remained until Tuesday, the 3rd September, when (at 4 P.M.) they were 
conveyed to the fortress of Peter and Paul. 

- During the next few days repeated efforts were made by M. van 
Niftrik, M. van der Pals, also Consul and neutral Legations to obtain 
release of those arrested, but without success. M. van Niftrik 
endeavoured successfully to obtain an interview with Zinoviev, President 
of Northern Commune, on the 1st September ; M. de Scavenius, Danish 
Minister, who expressed profound indignation at what had occurred, 
saw Zinoviev at 9 P.M. on that day, and expressed himself in strongest 
terms. He was promised that body of Captain Cromie should be 
delivered up to him and M. van Niftrik, and on the 2nd September 
they together removed the body to the English Church. The funeral 
took place in the presence of the whole of the Corps Diplomatique 
and the greater part of the British and French communities. The 
coffin was covered with the Union Jack and was completely wreathed 



6 

with flowers. After it had been lowered into the grave I pronounced 
following short address in French and English : 

" ' In the name of the British Government and in the name of the 
family of Captain Cromie I thank you all, especially the 
representatives of the Allied and neutral countries, for the 
honour you have shown Captain Cromie. 

" ' Friends, we have all known Captain Cromie, as a real friend, as a 
British gentleman, as a British officer in the highest sense 
of the word. 

' Happy is the country that produces sons like Captain Cromie. 
' Let his splendid and beautiful example lead us and inspire us 
all until the end of our days. Amen.' 

" The doyen of the Corps Diplomatique, M. Odier, Swiss Minister, 
gave expression to his deep sympathy and admiration for the late 
Captain Cromie, who had died for his country. 

"In the evening of the 3rd September, no impression having yet 
been made on the Communal authorities, another meeting of the Corps 
Diplomatique was held. This meeting was attended by neutral diplo- 
matic representatives, and M. van der Pals, representing the Netherlands 
Legation. Unexpected feature of the meeting was the appearance of 
German and Austrian consuls-general. The whole of the body met 
together at 9 P.M. and proceeded to Zinoviev's residence, where they 
with difficulty succeeded in obtaining an interview with him. M. Odier 
strongly protested, in the name of the neutral legations, at action taken 
by Communal authorities against foreign subjects. He emphasised 
the fact that for acts of violence committed against foreign subjects 
in Russia the Soviet officials would be held personally responsible. 
He demanded that permission should be granted for a neutral repre- 
sentative to be present at the examination of the accused. Zinoviev 
said that he must consult his colleagues on the matter. M. van der 
Pals afterwards again laid stress on his point. M. Odier was followed by 
German consul-general, who made a forcible protest in the name of 
humanity against the terrorism now entered upon by Bolsheviks. 
He referred in strong terms to ' sanguinary ' speech of the other day by 
M. Zinoviev, and said that even though French and English arrested 
belonged to nations at war with Germany, yet it was impossible not 
to unite with neutral representatives in a strong protest against course 
now adopted by Bolsheviks. 

" I returned to Petrograd yesterday, as I had received a telegram 
from my secretary urging my return, and could not therefore take 
responsibility of remaining longer absent from Petrograd, where position, 
I gathered, must be very bad. Up to to-day situation here has in no 
way improved. Besides British arrests, numerous arrests of French 
citizens have taken place, including that of the commercial attache 
to French Embassy, though French consular officers have not so far 
been touched. Thousands of Russians, belonging to officer and wealthy 
classes, not excluding merchants and shopkeepers, are being arrested 
daily, and, according to an official communication, 500 of them have 
already been shot ; amongst arrested there ate a large number of women. 
For last four days no further British arrests have been made. 

''Position of British subjects in prison is most precarious, and 
during last few days constant reports have reached Legation that 
question whether to shoot or release them has not yet been decided. 



There seems to be also a strong tendency to regard those arrested as 
hostages. Those belonging to military and naval missions are probably 
in most danger, and in present rabid temper of Bolsheviks anything is 
possible, but there is some hope that consular staff and civilians may be 
released before matters become still more serious. With regard to 
members of missions, hope of release seems very small. 

" Conditions under which Englishmen at Peter and Paul fortress 
are kept are most miserable. I was informed yesterday by M. D'Arcy, 
commercial attache to French Embassy, just released, that they are 
crowded together with other prisoners, some twenty in a cell, twenty by 
ten feet. In each cell there is only one bed, rest must sleep on a stone 
floor. No food whatever is supplied by prison authorities, and they 
depend entirely on arrangements which this Legation had made and 
food furnished by friends and relatives. Rugs, pillows, medicines, 
warm clothing, and other comforts are being sent from time to time, 
but great difficulties are experienced in getting these articles delivered. 
From the 31st August to morning of the 2nd September no food at all 
was accepted for prisoners. Since then they have received some supplied 
from outside, but it still remains to be seen whether it will reach them 
regularly at fortress, though I shall leave no stone unturned to secure 
its proper distribution. Russian prisoners in fortress appear to be 
absolutely starving, and this will make question of supply of British 
subjects even more difficult than it would otherwise be, owing to 
presence in their cells of famished Russians. 

Following is copy of letter received from British prisoners in the 
Fortress of Peter and Paul at Petrograd, dated 5th September, 1918 : 
' Your Excellency, 

' We are not allowed to write letters. We will write to you daily, 
since the chance of our letters getting through are very remote. Our 
life here is even worse than in Gorokhovaya 2, and in a sense we are 
being treated exactly like Russian officers and bourgeois, who are being 
slowly starved to death here. Our only hope lies in parcels, but 
delivery of parcels has been stopped for the moment. Those due on 
Monday last have not yet been delivered. It all depends on the caprice 
of some one in authority, and he seems very capricious. Surely we 
are entitled to be treated like prisoners of war and to be inspected by 
neutrals, to have the right of buying food, of getting news, of sending 
letters, of exercise, of getting clean linen, &c. Apart from the question 
of food, that of clothing and medical attention are most important. 
All the prisoners here have a chronic diarrhoea ; most of us have now 
got it. Requests for a doctor, or medicine, or complaints to the 
commandant, all receive no attention. In short, our treatment is 
absolutely inhuman. 

' Following is a short account of our treatment since Saturday 
last. We were never told why we were arrested, and from the first 
all requests, &c., to see you have been contemptuously and rudely 
refused. We reached Gorokhovaya at 6 P.M. on Saturday, and, after 
questioning of an aimless sort, we were put, at 8 P.M. in a room about 
25 feet by 15 feet, where there were already about fifty arrested Russians 
murderers, speculants (sic), &c. All beds were already occupied, 
and we spent the night between the three odd chairs, the floor, and 
walking about. By morning we were all in the first stages of verminosity, 
very dirty, tired, and hungry. The first food came at 1 P.M., small 



8 

bowls of bad fish, soup, and one-eighth of a pound of bread. At 6 P.M. 
we got another one-eighth pound of bread. We received the same 
food on Monday also. On Sunday night the room was less full, and 
we got some sleep. By that time we were also getting used to the 
journey (sic). Parcels arrived on Monday and eased the food situation 
On Tuesday at 4 P.M. we were marched through the streets under escort 
here. The consul's request for a vehicle for our kit was most rudely 
refused. Here we were distributed in different cells, size about 20 feet 
by 10 feet, in order to make up the number twenty. In our cell are 
thirteen Russians, four of whom are slowly starving to death. They 
have had no food for three days. After we had been here thirty-three 
hours, soup came in at 3 A.M., and one-eighth pound of bread. We 
could not eat the soup ; wood, leather, stones, mixed with cabbage and 
paper, were its main ingredients. So we, too, will sooner or later starve 
to death. Our immediate need is parcels, but it is essential for you to 
send some one here on Saturday to see if they have been delivered and 
to obtain our receipts. Otherwise they will not be delivered. 

" Next is medical comforts : (1) for diarrhoea ; (2) aspirin. We 
can get none. Third is some money. 

" We will write again to-morrow. We are not allowed to leave 
our cells. The door is never opened. The w.c. periodically refuses to 
work, and the atmosphere is appalling. 

" Need I say more, save that I hope you will lay the substance of 
this report before His Majesty's Government. 

" With many apologies for giving you this trouble. (Signed) 
From British Subjects detained in Peter and Paul." 



No. 7. 
Mr. Alston to Mr. Balfour. (Received September 18.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, September 16, 1918. 

HIS Majesty's consul at Ekaterinburg, Mr. Preston, who left 
that place on the 1st September, has just arrived here, and has given 
following information as to fate of Russian Imperial family : 

Ex-Emperor of Russia and Grand Duchess Tatiana were brought 
from Tobolsk to Ekaterinburg by Bolsheviks on the 1st May, 1918. 
Emperor was given suitable quarters near British consulate. Rest of 
Imperial family, including ex-Empress, other three daughters, and 
Czarevitch arrived a few days later. Members of suite, including 
Prince Dolgorouki, as well as British and French tutors who came 
with Imperial family from Tobolsk, were not allowed to remain with 
Emperor at Ekaterinburg, and returned to Tobolsk. Prince Dolgorouki 
was kept in prison, where he either eventually died or was killed. 

Prince Dolgorouki frequently asked me, as doyen of Consular 
Corps, at least to try and obtain better conditions of living for Imperial 
family. It was impossible for me, however, to do anything, and when 
I interceded for the Princess, whom I said I was protecting as a Serbian 
ally, I was threatened with arrest. When the Czech advance on 
Cheliabinsk commenced, the Ekaterinburg Bolshevik Government, who 
already had considerable friction with Central Bolshevik Government 
on money matters, began to use threats against the Imperial family 



as a means of extorting funds from Central Government. When 
Bolsheviks knew they would have to evacuate Ekaterinburg owing 
to the approach of the Czechs, they asked the People's Commissaries 
at Moscow what they should do with the Emperor. The reply they 
received was : " Do whatever you think fit." At a meeting of the 
Ural Soldiers' and Workmen's delegates held on 16th July, a decision 
was come to that the Emperor should be shot, and this decision was 
communicated to him, and sentence carried out by Lettish soldiers 
same night. However, no trace has ever been found of the body. 
The rest of members of Imperial family were taken away to an 
unknown destination immediately after this. It is said that they were 
burnt alive, as various articles of jewellery have been identified as 
belonging to them by their old servants, and their charred remains 
are said to have been found in a house burnt to the ground. It is 
still thought possible that the Bolsheviks took them north when they 
retreated to Verhotoury The following grand dukes were in captivity 
near Ekaterinburg, at Alapaevsk, besides the ex-Emperor, George 
Constantinovitch, Ivan Constantinovitch, and Serge Michailovitch. 
Princess Helene of Serbia, the wife of the Grand Duke Ivan 
Constantinovitch, was frequently at the British consulate, where 
everything possible was done for her, but in spite of my energetic 
protests, the Bolsheviks took the Princess with them when they 
evacuated the town. 

With the help of local White Guards, the three above-mentioned 
grand dukes managed to escape from their captivity, but it is not 
known where they are at present. 



No. 8. 
Sir C. Eliot to Mr. Balfour. (Received January 2, 1919.) 

Sir, Ekaterinburg, October 5, 1918. 

I HAVE the honour to submit the following i*eport of what is 
known respecting the fate of the Russian Imperial family, as well as 
a short narrative written at my request by Mr. Sidney Gibbes, formerly 
tutor to His Imperial Highness the Czarevitch. Mr. Gibbes accom- 
panied the Imperial children from Tobolsk to Ekaterinburg on 23rd May, 
but was not allowed to live in the house where they were confined 
with their parents in the latter town. 

The Bolsheviks of Ekaterinburg stated in speeches and pro- 
clamations that the Czar was shot on the night of 16th July, but many 
of the best-informed Russians believe that he is still alive and in 
German custody. I dare not, however, indulge the hope that this is 
true, unless some more adequate explanation than those current can 
be given of the supposed action of the Bolsheviks. 

The official in charge of the enquiry at the time of my visit showed 
me over the house where the Imperial family resided. He dismissed 
as pure inventions the stories commonly believed in Siberia, such as 
that the corpse had been discovered, or that a member of the firing 
party had made a confession. On the other hand, he said that all 



10 

the narratives of persons who thought they had seen the Emperor 
after 16th July had proved to be entirely without foundation^ In 
his own opinion, the chances were four to three that the murder had 
been perpetrated. The house stands on the side of a hill, and the 
entrance leads into the first floor, where the Imperial family lived ; 
the ground floor, in which the guard was quartered, consisting of offices 
and kitchens. The latter, however, were not used for cooking, the 
only food allowed being military rations brought in from outside, and 
some special dishes for the Tsarevitch which were supplied by the 
nuns of a neighbouring convent. A high wooden palisade hid the 
windows of the upper storey, which were also whitewashed inside 
and kept closed even in the heat of summer. 

The Imperial family had to endure considerable hardships and 
insolence while they lived in this house. They were allowed only one 
walk of fifteen minutes in the garden every day, but the Czar found 
distraction in doing carpentering work in an open shed. At meals 
the soldiers sometimes came in and took pait of the meat off the table, 
saying that there was too much, and the Imperial family were not 
allowed decent privacy. 

The rooms when I saw them presented a melancholy and dirty 
appearance, because the Bolsheviks had burnt a great quantity of 
objects in the stoves, and the ashes were subsequently taken out by 
the police and spread on the tables and floor with the object of dis- 
covering if they contained anything interesting. 

There appears to be no evidence whatever to corroborate the 
popular story that on the night of the 16th July the Czar was taken 
out of the house and shot by a firing party in the manner usual at 
Bolshevik executions, but there is some evidence that sounds of uproar 
and shooting were heard in the house that night, and that no traffic 
was allowed in the streets near it. The murder is believed to have 
taken place in a room on the ground floor, which was sealed up, but 
kindly opened for my inspection. It was quite empty ; the floor 
was of plain wood, and the walls of wood coated with plaster. Doggerel 
verses and indecent figures were scrawled on them. On the wall 
opposite the door, and on the floor, were the marks of seventeen bullets, 
or, to be more accurate, marks showing where pieces of the wall and 
floor had been cut out in order to remove the bullet holes, the officials 
charged with the investigation having thought fit to take them away 
for examination elsewhere. They stated that Browning revolver 
bullets were found in all the holes, and that some of them were stained 
with blood. Otherwise no traces of blood were visible, but there 
were some signs that the wall had been scraped and washed. The 
position of the bullets indicated that the victims had been shot when 
kneeling, and that other shots had been fired into them when they 
had fallen on the floor. Mr. Gibbes thought that for religious reasons 
the Czar and Dr. Botkin would be sure to kneel when facing death. 
There is no real evidence as to who or how many the victims were,, 
but it is supposed that they were five, namely, the Czar, Dr. Botkin, 
the Empress's maid, and two lackeys. No corpses were discovered,, 
nor any trace of their having been disposed of by burning or otherwise, 
but it was stated that a finger bearing a ring, believed to have belonged 
to Dr. Botkin, was found in a well. 



11 

On the 17th July a train with the blinds down left Ekaterinburg 
for an unknown destination, and it is believed that the surviving 
members of the Imperial family were in it. 

It will be seen from the above account that the statement of the 
Bolsheviks is the only evidence for the death of the Czar, and it is an 
easy task for ingenious and sanguine minds to invent narratives giving 
a plausible account of His Imperial Majesty's escape. It must indeed 
be admitted that since the Empress and her children, who are believed 
to be still alive, have totally disappeared, there is nothing unreasonable 
in supposing the Czar to be in the same case. The marks in the room 
at Ekaterinburg prove at most that some persons unknown were 
shot there, and might even be explained as the result of a drunken 
brawl. 

But I fear that another train of thought is nearer to the truth. 
It seems to me eminently probable that the Bolsheviks of Moscow, or 
a section of them, wished to hand over the Czar to the Germans. With 
this object a commissioner went to Tobolsk and removed Their Imperial 
Majesties in a summary, but not unkindly, manner, probably intending 
to take them to Moscow". He evidently knew that the temper of the 
Siberian Bolsheviks was doubtful, for he stopped the train outside 
Omsk and, finding that the local authorities intended to arrest the Czar, 
he ordered the train to leave for Ekaterinburg, that is, to take the 
only other route to Moscow. But when the train reached Ekaterinburg 
it was stopped by the local authorities and all the occupants removed. 
Subsequently the Imperial children were brought to Ekaterinburg from 
Tobolsk and placed in custody with their parents. The treatment of 
the Imperial family at Ekaterinburg shows an animus which was entirely 
wanting at Tobolsk, and the Bolsheviks became more hostile and more 
suspicious, as they felt that their own reign was coming to an end, 
and that they must leave the city. There is some evidence that they 
were much alarmed by an aeroplane flying over the garden of the house, 
and I fear it is comprehensible that in a fit of rage and panic they made 
away with His Imperial Majesty. 

It is the general opinion in Ekaterinburg that the Empress, her 
son, and four daughters were not murdered, but were despatched on 
the 17th July to the north or west. The story that they were burnt 
in a house seems to be an exaggeration of the fact that in a wood outside 
the town was found a heap of ashes, apparently the result of burning a 
considerable quantity of clothing. At the bottom of the ashes was a 
diamond, and, as one of the Grand Duchesses is said to have sewn a 
diamond into the lining of her cloak, it is supposed that the clothes of 
the Imperial family were burnt here. Also hair, identified as belonging 
to one of the Grand Duchesses, was found in the house. It therefore 
seems probable that the Imperial family were disguised before their 
removal. At Ekaterinburg I did not hear even a rumour as to their 
fate; but subsequent stories about the murder of various Grand Dukes 
and Grand Duchesses cannot but inspire apprehension. 

I have, &c., 

C, ELIOT. 



12 



Enclosure in No. 8. 

Memorandum Written by Mr. Sidney Gibbes, formerly Tutor of the 
Tsarevitch, and given to me (High Commissioner) on October 5, at 

Ekaterinburg. 

THE Emperor had no great cause to complain of his treatment 
while living in Tobolsk, and physically he greatly improved in health. 
He seemed to feel that he had absolved himself of a wearisome business 
and thrown the responsibility on other shoulders. The enforced leisure 
gave him more time to devote to what was undoubtedly dearest to him 
in the world his wife and family. The Empress suffered more, but 
bore bravely up under all hardship. 

The Grand Duchesses were always happy and contented, and 
seemed satisfied with the simple life to which they were reduced, although 
they pined for more exercise in the open air, the yard being a poor 
substitute for the parks. This indeed seemed generally to be their 
greatest hardship. 

The Grand Duke enjoyed fairly good health most of the time, 
and suffered most from lack of youthful society, although the doctor's 
son was sometimes allowed to enter and play with him. 

This simple family life went on till the beginning of April (o.s.), 
when the first important Bolshevik Commissar, Yakovlef, arrived from 
Moscow. He was received by the Emperor, who showed him the rooms 
in which they lived, including the Grand Duke's room, where he was 
then lying ill in bed. At the end of the visit he asked to be taken a 
second time to see the Grand Duke. 

After lunch on the 12th of April, Yakovlef announced to the 
Emperor and Empress that he was instructed to remove the Emperor, 
and hoped that he would consent and not oblige him to use force. The 
Empress was greatly distressed, and at her desire was allowed to 
accompany the Emperor and take with her her third daughter, the 
Grand Duchess Marie. Hasty preparations were made for their departure. 
The Imperial family dined alone, but at eleven o'clock invited all who 
were accustomed to dine with them to tea in the drawing-room. Tea 
was served at a large round table carried into the room, and was a very 
sad meal. The departure was fixed for 3 A.M., and shortly before that 
time carts and carriages entered the yard. The Emperor drove with 
Yakovlef, and the Empress and Grand Duchess Marie in a half-covered 
tarantass. They were accompanied by Prince Dolgorouki, Dr. Botkin, 
the Empress's maid (Demidova), the Emperor's man (Chemidorof), 
and one lackey (Saidnef). The carriages were strewn with hay, on 
which they sat, or rather reclined. The roads were in a fearful condition, 
the thaws having already begun, and at one point they were obliged to 
cross the river on foot, the ice being already unsafe. On the second 
night, they spent a few hours in a hut, and arrived on the following day 
at Tumen, where a train was in waiting which took them in the direction 
of Omsk. Some versts outside that town Yakovlef left the train and 



13 

went by motor car to the telegraph station to communicate with 
Moscow, and, finding that preparations were being made in Omsk to 
arrest the Imperial family, he returned to the train, which then left 
in the opposite direction, and returned the way it came. However, 
on arrival at Ekaterinburg, the train was stopped and everybody 
removed : Prince Dolgorouki to prison and the others to a private 
house in the centre of the town that had hastily been prepared for 
their reception. A high wooden fence of rough boards was hastily put 
up outside the house, and the windows whitened within. Here the 
Emperor, Empress, and the Grand Duchess Marie lived till the 16th 
July (o.s.), the rest of the children being brought from Tobolsk to join 
their parents on the 23rd of May. For this journey elaborate arrange- 
ments were made for its safe conduct, and the whole personal effects 
of the Imperial family, as well as the furniture from the Governor's 
house, were removed at the same time. The train arrived in the middle 
of the night, but was kept moving in and out of the station all night, 
and at 7 A.M. the children were removed, being placed in cabs and taken 
to the house. The night was cold and heavy snow fell as they left. 
At tea the Countess Hendrichof, the Empress's Lady-in-Waiting, 
Mile. Schneider, the Empress's reader in Russian, and General Tatischef 
were taken away to the prison and have since been shot. At 11, three 
lackeys, the cook, and his boy were ordered to prepare to go into the 
house, and two certainly, most probably four, were afterwards shot. 
The remainder of the establishment, consisting of the Baroness 
Buxhoevden, Lady-in-Waiting to the Empress, the English and French 
tutors, and about sixteen personal attendants and servants were set at 
liberty and happily escaped. 

Since the departure of the Bolsheviks, the house in which the 
Imperial family lived has been thoroughly examined, and undoubted 
traces of murder exist, but the number of shots are not sufficient to 
warrant the supposition that all the persons there confined were murdered. 
Part were murdered and part were taken away, and as the Grand 
Duchesses' hair had been found, it is supposed that the Imperial 
children were taken away disguised. Garments having been burnt in 
a forest outside the town also strengthens this supposition. The 
Bolsheviks announced after this date at a public meeting held in the 
theatre and by bills posted on the walls that the Emperor had been 
shot and the Imperial family removed to a safe place, and to the present 
there is no evidence to prove the statement false, while the evidence of 
the hair would prove that at least the part of the statement concerning 
the children was true. But since that date nearly three months have 
passed. 

Other members of the Imperial family confined at Alapaevsk, 
a small town 100 versts from Ekaterinburg, included the Grand Duke 
Serge Michaelovitch, Prince John Constantinovitch, Prince Igor Constan- 
tinovitch, and Count Vladimir Pavlovitch Pale, all of whom there is 
reason to fear have been killed. The Grand Duchess Serge, who was 
also there, is reported to have been wounded and taken away. Princess 
Helen Petrovna, of Serbia, who came to Ekaterinburg to be near her 
husband, was arrested, as well as the two Serbian officers who came to 
induce her to leave, and has been removed with the other hostages 
taken from the town. 



No. 9. 
Mr. Alston to Mr. Half our. (Received November 5.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, November 4, 1918. 

FOLLO.WING from Consul at Ekaterinburg, 28th October : 
" Regret, to report I am informed by Russian staff that when 
Alapaevsk was taken by Russian troops on 29th September corpses, 
sufficiently preserved to be recognised, of Grand Duchess Elizabeth 
Feodorovna, and of three Royal Princes John, Constantin, and Igor 
Constantinovitch, and also that of Grand Duke Serge Michaelovitch, 
and lady-in-waiting, name yet unknown, were found in mine pit in 
which they had been thrown, presumably alive, bombs being thrown 
on them which did not effectually explode. All were buried with 
ceremonial, large crowds attending. Princess Helene of Serbia, believed 
to be at Perm, where she was taken by Bolsheviks with Serbian mission, 
when Bolsheviks evacuated Ekaterinburg. Making thorough investi- 
gation." 

No. 10. 

Mr. Lockhart to Sir G. Clerk. 

Dear Sir George, November 10, 1918. 

THE following points may interest Mr. Balfour : 

1. The Bolsheviks have established a rule of force and oppression 
unequalled in the history of any autocracy. 

2. Themselves the fiercest upholders of the right of free speech, 
they have suppressed, since coming into power, every newspaper which 
does not approve their policy. In this respect the Socialist press has 
suffered most of all. Even the papers of the Internationalist Mensheviks 
like " Martov " have been suppressed and closed down, and the unfor- 
tunate editors thrown into prison or forced to flee for their lives. 

3. The right of holding public meetings has been abolished. The 
vote has been taken away from everyone except the workmen in the 
factories and the poorer servants, and even amongst the workmen 
those who dare to vote against the Bolsheviks are marked down by 
the Bolshevik secret police as counter-revolutionaries, and are fortunate 
if their worst fate is to be thrown into prison, of which in Russia to-day 
it may truly be said, " many go in but few come out." 

4. The worst crimes of the Bolsheviks have been against their 
Socialist opponents. Of the countless executions which the Bolsheviks 
have carried out a large percentage has fallen on the heads of Socialists 
who had waged a life-long struggle against the old regime, but who are 
now denounced as counter-revolutionaries merelybecause they disapprove 
of the manner in which the Bolsheviks have discredited socialism. 

5. The Bolsheviks have abolished even the most primitive forms 
of justice. Thousands of men and women have been shot without 
even the mockery of a trial, and thousands more are left to rot in the 
prisons under conditions to find a parallel to which one must turn 
to the darkest annals of Indian or Chinese history. 



6. The Bolsheviks have restored the barbarous methods of torture. 
The examination of prisoners frequently takes place with a revolver- at 
the unfortunate prisoner's head. 

7. The Bolsheviks have established the odious practice of taking 
hostages. Still worse, they have struck at their political opponents 
through their w T omen folk. When recently a long list of hostages 
was published in Petrograd, the Bolsheviks seized the wives of those 
men whom they could not find and threw them into prison until their 
husbands should give themselves up. 

8. The Bolsheviks who destroyed the Russian army, and who have 
always been the avowed opponents of militarism, have forcibly mobilised 
officers who do not share their political views, but whose technical 
knowledge is indispensable, and by the threat of" immediate execution 
have forced them to fight against their fellow-countrymen in a civil 
war of unparalleled horror. 

9. The avowed ambition of Lenin is to create civil warfare through- 
out Europe. Every speech of Lenin's is a denunciation of constitu- 
tional methods, -and a glorification of the doctrine of physical .force. 
With that object in view he is destroying systematically both by 
executions and by deliberate starvation .every form of opposition to 
Bolshevism. This system of " terror " is aimed chiefly at the Liberals 
and non-Bolshevik Socialists, whom-Lenin regards as his most dangerous 
opponents. 

10. In order to maintain their popularity with the working-men 
and with their hired mercenaries, the Bolsheviks are paying .their 
supporters enormous wages by means of an unchecked paper issue, 
until to-day money in Russia has naturally lost all value. Even 
according to their own figures the Bolsheviks' expenditure exceeds 
the revenue by thousands of millions of roubles per annum. 

These are facts for which the Bolsheviks may seek to find an excuse, 
but which they cannot deny. 

Yours sincerely, 

R. H. B. LOCKHART. 



No. 11. 

Reports on Conditions in Russia. 

(1.) 

Report on " Bolshevik Realities," by Mrs. L *, formerly Organiser 
and Controller of a large War Hospital in Moscow, who left Russia in 

October, 1918. 

The Peasants and the Land. Already under the regime of the 
Provisional Government the land had been handed over to the whole 
body of the peasants in each district. But it must be borne in mind 
that the Russian peasant has a strongly developed sense of property 
and all his hopes were centred on an ultimate dividing of the land, 
which would make each one an individual proprietor and guarantee 
him the secure ownership of his holding. The Bolsheviks, however, 

* As some of those who have handed in reports or been interviewed have relatives 
and property in Russia and contemplate returning there after the Bolshevik regime is at 
an end, their names have been suppressed. 



16 

regarding the land as the property of the nation as a whole, ordered 
the peasants to cultivate the fields for the benefit of the local commune. 
The peasants, disappointed in their hopes, soon began to express their 
disapproval of the new policy. This brought upon them the accusation 
of disloyalty to the Soviet Government, and their antagonism was 
countered by the appointment in each district of " Comiteti Bednoti " 
(Committees consisting of the poorest class of peasants), who disposed 
of the crop, leaving a certain amount in possession of those who had 
grown it and taking the rest for themselves. This meant that the drones 
got all they needed without doing any productive work, and was 
equivalent to a premium on idleness. The inevitable result was a 
steady decline in the crops, which will in the end prove the ruin of 
agricultural Russia. 

The Factory and the Workmen. Under the Provisional Govern- 
ment, Workmen's Committees were formed which dealt with such 
questions as hiring of labour, deciding the scale of pensions, allowances, 
and bonuses, and the whole administration of the factory. Selling 
prices were controlled and profits were allocated in the proportion 
of 95 per cent, to the State and 5 per cent, to the owner. In practice 
this scheme resulted in continual reconstruction of the committees 
on the ground that the bonuses were too low or pensions unfairly 
awarded. The committees were never in power long enough to get 
acquainted with the details of the business. At the beginning of 
their regime the Bolsheviks did not alter this system, but gradually 
changes leading towards nationalisation were inaugurated. In March, 
1918, private trade was put an end to and a Central Board for every 
industry was set up which collected the produce from various firms. 
The selling prices were fixed by decree, but payment out of which wages 
and expenses had to come was made by the Central Board only after 
long delay and repeated demand. 

In July all factories were nationalised and handed over to the 
workmen under the direction of Central Boards which functioned in 
a most despotic manner. All owners and managers were turned out 
and could not re-enter the works unless elected. At the slightest 
opposition or protest the workmen were thrown into prison, field guns 
brought out, and the threat made to raze the factory to the ground. 

Wages and Food. The minimum wage for a workman was fixed 
at 500 roubles per month, while superior artisans (a very small per- 
centage of the community) received up to a maximum of 1,000 roubles 
per month. This sum was fixed on the assumption that the official 
rations were inadequate. In actual fact the scale was ludicrously 
insufficient to maintain life. Up till September, 1916, the bread ration 
was Ib. to ^ Ib. per day for workmen and J Ib. for others. The bread 
was of very low standard, was full of refuse of all kinds and of the con- 
sistency of putty. Even this ration was seldom to be had. True, 
certain things could be obtained by underhand means, as for example 
black flour at 10 roubles per Ib. (equivalent to 6s. to-day), butter at 
39 roubles per Ib., sugar at 39 roubles per Ib., eggs at 27 roubles per 
dozen. From this it is quite evident that the wage of 500 roubles was 
inadequate for the upkeep of a family. As a result the workpeople 
tried to bring supplies into the town from districts where the prices 
were lower. This practice was strongly forbidden by the Government 
because it upset their " rationing organisation," and strong measures 



17 

were taken to repress it. A train returning from one of the food areas 
would be held up by a body of Red Guards, established at some point 
on the line. These guards would open fire on the train and almost 
invariably some of the passengers were shot. All had their provisions 
confiscated, and the wretched workman returned to his home minus 
money and flour and having lost two or three days' work. These food 
hunting expeditions disorganised the whole of the factories, as a third 
of the men were always absent. When it is remembered that clothing, 
rent, and other necessaries had also to be provided out of the 500 roubles, 
it will be understood how deplorable were the conditions of life. 
Materials and made-up clothing were also rationed, but there was hardly 
enough to supply the needs of one-tenth of the population. The result 
of this struggle between the workmen and the Government, and the 
inefficiency of the latter's subordinate officials, is that the Russian 
factories are rapidly falling into a state of ruin. Output has decreased 
in some cases 90 per cent., and as there is no available supply of fuel 
or raw materials it is only a question of a few months, if the Bolsheviks 
remain in power, before the factories will be forced to close down. 

Repression of Democracy. After the July Congress anpl the anti- 
Bolshevik demonstration of the Left Social Revolutionaries, non- 
Bolshevik Socialists were deprived of all political rights, hundreds of 
Socialist workmen were thrown into prison and large numbers were 
shot. In addition 3,000 workmen were thrown out of employment 
in the tramway repairing shops in Moscow simply on the ground of 
their Social Revolutionary sympathies. 

The best illustration of the autocratic rule under which the workmen 
now exist is the fact that all public expression of opinion has been for- 
bidden. All non-Bolshevik newspapers have been suppressed, including 
even " The Independent Socialist," whose editor, Martov, had a world- 
wide reputation in Socialist circles. All public meetings except those 
organised by the Bolsheviks are prohibited, and the Bolsheviks call 
themselves " The Peasants' and Workmen's Government." 

The most serious crime in the eyes of the Bolsheviks is anti- 
Bolshevism, and the work of discovering and punishing offenders of 
this kind is in the hands of the Extraordinary Commission an auto- 
cratic body which arrests, examines, imprisons, and executes at will. 
There is no charge, no public trial, and no appeal. There are English 
works-foremen in prison in Moscow to-day with nothing against them 
except the fact that they happened to be in a certain street or square 
at the time when the Red Guards took it into their heads to make a 
general arrest. Appeals from the Red Cross and the neutral consuls 
are unavailing. The Kommissar in charge of the case is away ill and 
nothing can be done till his return. Crimes of street robbery, &c., 
are punished in a rough and ready way ; the offender is shot on the spot 
and the body left there till someone thinks good to remove it. 

To describe the life inside the prisons would require the pen of 
Charles Reade. Even using the greatest restraint and moderation, 
any account must appear exaggerated and hysterical to English readers. 
In verminous, ill-ventilated cells, starved and terrorised people are 
crowded together in one room, men, women, young girls (the latter held 
as hostages to force their hiding fathers or brothers to give themselves 
up). At six o'clock in the evening the doors are locked and no one is 
allowed out for any reason till morning, except those called out at about 

(1057) c 



18 

3 A.M. for execution. Healthy and sick (some with cholera) are huddled 
on the floor, uncertain of their fate and knowing it is out cf the power 
of anyone to help them. The food consists of one quarter of a pound 
of black bread and a bowl of hot water in which are floating some pieces 
of cabbage and occasionally a few fish heads. Red Cross officials 
noticed a rapid change in the appearance of prisoners ; they looked each 
day more haggard, drawn, and hopeless. 



(2.) 
Report by Mr. H , Vladimir. October 14, 1918. 

Our mills continued to work under the most adverse conditions, 
which grew from bad to worse during the course of the years 1917-1918, 
owing to labour disorganisation, shortage of raw material, money (from 
a balance of 35,000,000 roubles we now owe 25,000,000 roubles to the 
State Bank), and finally of food for the workpeople. The large shell 
manufacturing plant which during the course of the war we had developed 
had to be closed down by orders of the Soviet. Famine and cholera 
finally made their appearance, and the workpeople and their families 
(especially children) commenced to die and to grow so weak as to 
seriously impair their capacity for work. My co-directors and self 
were powerless to do anything to help or do anything in the matter as 
the Soviet had taken over everything connected with the working of the 
concern, putting in utterly incapable people such as doorkeepers, 
watchmen, &c., to supervise work demanding long experience, technical 
and medical knowledge, even interfering with the hospital administra- 
tion, where the man cook supervised the work of our doctors. 

As the (mill) position grew worse and matters became impossible 
I was charged with sabotage and working as an agent of England to 
paralyse industry in our district. All the sales and purchases of mate- 
rials and goods were made through the agency of the Soviet,who employed 
dishonest persons with the result that though our goods were ostensibly 
sold to various representative bodies such as other Soviet organisations, 
in reality they were made the objects of speculation and theft, and sold 
in some cases to known German agents and sent to Germany. This 
was known to the workpeople who were greatly excited by the matter. 
Shortage of food, the supply and disposal of which became a Soviet 
monopoly, with the usual result of stopping all supplies, forced the 
workpeople to travel to the grain districts in the South and East of 
Russia and obtain supplies there themselves. The supplies, in order 
to preserve the principle of Soviet monopoly, were usually confiscated 
by the Red Army requisition commandoes from the unfortunate people 
on their return journeys on the railways. These Red Army requisition 
commandoes are charged with the duty of stopping all private trading 
and so-called speculation, but being in many cases utterly devoid of 
any idea of honesty or duty, merely took the food and resold same, 
in many cases to the people again. Eventually there was no more money 
to be had, the workpeople having even exhausted their savings. In 
addition, the journey undertaken to obtain food was long, costly and 
.arduous, and generally 50 per cent, of the people were away from their 
occupation, losing their wages and so making their position still worse, 



19 

and congesting the railways. At the same time members of the local 
Soviet were continually seen in a drunken condition and were evidently 
living well. Exasperation grew, and finally the workpeople, with whom 
joined many of the peasants in the district, came in a body to me and 
asked my aid, but I was powerless to help. In addition, I had to be 
very careful as my words and actions could have been so misconstrued 
to the Soviet as to cause them to think that I was interfering in their 
functions. The fact of the people coming to me as of old for help 
alarmed the Soviet authorities, and open threats were made against 
me and arrests of workmen followed. This was at the time of the 
outrage at the British Embassy at Petrograd, and on receipt of news 
of same I was advised to leave by certain members of the Soviet. A 
meeting was then called by order of the Moscow authorities in order 
to choose the quota of members of the requisition commandoes of the 
Red Army from amongst the workpeople, who answered the summons 
by picking the members of the local Soviet, who were bitterly attacked 
and the actions and authority of the Soviet Government repudiated. 
The speakers were arrested, and on the demand of the crowd of work- 
people, numbering some 20,000, to release them, the guard of the local 
prison consisting of members of the Red Army opened fire, killing and 
wounding, it was stated, over 100 people. In addition many were 
badly hurt in the panic which ensued. On the following day all the 
mills and works in the district were stopped, the workpeople striking 
as a protest. I then left the district for Moscow, not wishing to be made 
the centre of an anti-Soviet movement ; especially as the authorities 
were accusing the British and French representatives as being the 
cause of the many disturbances which were occurring all over the 
country, but which in reality were caused by their own reckless, 
unscrupulous, and utterly dishonest conduct. 

My house, with all contents, horses, carriages, clothing, &c., were 
confiscated or " requisitioned " by the local Soviet. In addition all 
my holding in the firm, including shares and loan money, were taken 
over by the Central Government, and jewellery, plate and papers 
placed in the safe of the library at the Anglican Church, and furs stored 
in cold storage in Moscow were confiscated by the Moscow Tribunal. 



Trade Conditions in Central Russia. 

No statistics are available, but, roughly, the following can be 
taken as a fairly reliable estimate in October last : 

Metal Trades. 

The metal trade was practically at a standstill, due to the shortage 
of fuel and raw materials, probably not more than 40 per cent, of the 
plant on all branches being in operation. Labour was thoroughly 
disorganised, owing to political and economic disturbances and shortage 
of food products which forced the workpeople to leave their occupations 
for long periods in search of food. The stocks of what little fuel, copper, 
lead, &c., that remained were being gradually exhausted, and no hope 
of recovery could be expected in the near future. Physically the metal 
trades entail a heavy strain on the workers, whose stamina was 
thoroughly exhausted by shortage of food. 



20 

Linen Trade. 

Production was 50 per cent, of the normal and was gradually 
being reduced owing to shortage of flax (due to difficulties of transport) 
and fuel. Workpeople were starving and absenting themselves from 
their work searching for food. 

Woollen Trade. 

Production was decreased 60 per cent, owing to shortage of wool 
and fuel. Similar conditions prevailed amongst the workpeople as 
elsewhere in Central Russia. During the course of the summer there 
was a stoppage of from one to three months of all the mills. The wool- 
producing districts, such as Simbirsk, Kazan, Saratov, and Astrakhan 
were centres of great unrest, and no wool was to be obtained from these 
districts. 

Cotton Trade. 

Production was decreased 60 per cent, below normal. This applies 
to all branches. Many mills were stopped altogether and the stocks 
of cotton from these mills have been requisitioned and distributed to 
certain groups of mills which have been nationalised by the Government. 
Probably 30 per cent, are stopped. Stoppages of all mills took place 
during the summer from one to three months. At time of leaving 
another period of stoppage of one month for all mills had been pro- 
claimed by the Government. Labour conditions, as in other trades, 
owing to economic and food troubles, were very unsettled. There 
was sufficient fuel to last six months. Stocks of cotton in Central 
Russia were roughly 1,500,000 poods ; the monthly requirements 
for all mills being 1,200,000 poods. These stocks would allow of 
another five weeks of work. In Central Asia it was estimated that 
there were the following stocks : 3,500,000 poods of the old 1916-1917 
crops and 2,500,000 poods of the new 1917-1918 crops. On the Volga 
and on the Caspian Sea it was estimated that there was another 1,000,000 
poods. These last stocks were, however, unavailable, as the districts 
mentioned were practically cut off from communication with Central 
Russia. This year, 1918, it is calculated that only 30 per cent, of the 
land in Central Asia is being sown with cotton. 

In Central Russia the staple trades are manufacturing in all its 
branches woollen and silk. Of the raw material required during the 
period of the war 70 per cent, of the cotton has been obtained from 
Central Asia and Trans-Caucasia (Erivan, Kars, and Mugan districts), 
and 30 per cent, from abroad. Silk has also been obtained almost 
entirely from these districts with the exception of a small quantity 
from Japan. With the closing of these markets to Russia the textile 
industries will have entirely to close down, thus throwing out of work 
a great number of people. The Mohammedan populations in these 
districts are only too anxious to throw off the power of the Soviets, 
and would do so at once if they were sure of strong support on the part 
of the Allied Governments. Several risings have taken place in the 
territories of the Emir of Bokhara and the Khan of Khiva, who them- 
selves are very anxious regarding the safety of their own thrones, as 
there is in their dominions a party who supports the Bolsheviks. 



21 

Silk Trade. 

The silk trade is practically dead. All supplies of silk from Italy, 
Japan, Central Asia, and the Caucasus being cut off and the stocks of 
silk arc now exhausted. 

Paper Trade. 

The paper trade has greatly decreased, probably the output of 
the mills being 60 per cent, of normal. 

Coal Trade. 

The Brown coal districts of Tula, Riazan, and Moscow are giving 
60 per cent, of their full production, the shortage being caused by the 
absence of the workpeople. Strong attempts are being made by the 
Soviets to develop these districts since the Don Coalfields were cut off 
from Russia. The results so far have not been encouraging. 

Peat Industry. 

The working season as a rule is from May to July. The labourers 
employed are bodies of organised peat workers from the Riazan Govern- 
ment, supplemented during the war by German and Austrian prisoners. 
The work is heavy and requires great physical strength. The workers, 
not having sufficient food, could not produce their full complement of 
work. In addition many workpeople did not leave their villages, 
fearing famine. In consequence production was only 60 per cent, 
of the normal. Great efforts have been made by the local authorities, 
especially in view of the fact that the stocks of coal and naphtha were 
exhausted, to increase the production of this class of fuel. The results 
were disappointing and gave no alleviation to the situation. 

Timber Trade. 

Tracts of forests were being cut down for the use of the railways 
and industries, especially power stations, but the shortage of labour 
and disorganisation of traffic prevented any serious results being 
attained. The shortage of fuel has caused the authorities to close the 
schools or to curtail the period of instruction. 

Agriculture. 

The crops in 1918 have been in every case above the average, the 
Government estimate being 120 per cent. Much hitherto uncultivated 
land was brought under the plough owing to the very high prices 
prevailing for food products, the price for same fixed by the Government 
being 20 roubles per pood for flour, which, in private hands, was being 
sold at 350 to 400 roubles per pood. The price of meat was fixed at 
40 roubles per pood but was being sold at 400 roubles per pood ; sugar 
was being sold at 25 roubles per pood. Under these conditions the 
peasantry were making much money, as, for instance, one dessetine 
of land produces on an average in Central Russia 200 poods of potatoes, 
the average price of which was 40 roubles per pood, thus giving 8,000 
roubles per dessetine. As the average holding of the peasant is now 
6 dessetines, the sum earned as an average would probably be from 
40,000 to 50,000 roubles per year. These prices were inducing the 
peasant to cultivate land which formerly was lying fallow. This may 
even cause a real and permanent improvement in methods of cultivation 
of land hitherto worked in a most primitive manner, as the peasantry are 
now demanding and buying good agricultural implements. 



22 

The State of the Transport. 

Transport both by rail and water was still disorganised, but, as 
the railways had their own separate organisations, which were more 
or less independent of the Central Soviet, matters were not as bad as 
in other branches of industry. There was a shortage of fuel, which 
consisted largely of timber and of lubricating oil, and there was still 
an enormous amount of railway stock lying unrepaired. 

The tramway services in Moscow and Petrograd had been decreased 
to one-fourth of the normal service owing to want of fuel. Motor 
transport, however, was being utilised without restriction, especially 
by the members of the many Soviets and their various organisations. 
It was stated that the stock of petrol in Moscow in August was roughly 
50,000 poods. The river service on the Volga was practically suspended 
during the summer owing to the river being in the war zone. This 
greatly encumbered the already overworked railways. 

Recent Legislation. 

All lands, building, machinery, &c., were now nationalised, without 
any compensation being paid to the former owners. The result has 
been an utter deadlock, all private enterprise being killed. Money is 
being hidden to an enormous extent, the absence of which is being 
made good as quickly as ever possible by the Soviet's printing presses ; 
private printing establishments being taken over for this purpose. 
It is estimated that the quantity of paper currency in circulation is 
now over 30,000,000,000 roubles, roughly 100 times the present gold 
reserve. A great quantity of false money is also being printed and 
being brought into circulation, especially the 20 and 40 rouble note 
varieties. All private trading is being taken over by the Government 
and the stocks are being confiscated. 

Gold articles over a certain weight are confiscated, with the result 
that same have disappeared, being hidden by the owners. The system 
of education has been entirely altered. All religious instruction has 
been abolished, and in its place a form of State Socialistic instruction 
substituted. The peasantry now refuse to send their children to State 
schools and they remain without education. Clothing, such as winter 
overcoats, belonging to private people are being confiscated for the 
benefit of the Red Army. No man is supposed to possess more than 
one suit of clothes, two changes of linen, or two pairs of boots ; anything 
above this is requisitioned for so-called State purposes. All furniture 
is nationalised. 

Political Conditions. 

Throughout the districts occupied or administered by the Soviet 
Government 90 per cent, of the population is against the administration, 
and probably not more than 5 per cent, actively support the same. 
This 5 per cent, consists of returned political refugees, mostly non- 
Russian in race, members of the many committees, commissariats, and 
Government's Departments, Red Army recruits, who are receiving 
high wages, and a certain number of fanatics, mostly young, of both 
sexes. The remaining 5 per cent, support the Soviets simply owing to 
the fact that they are dependent on them for a living. Also amongst 
these there are a certain number who are working for the purpose of 



23 

getting acquainted with the organisations. This element could be 
depended upon to give valuable help in the event of a counter- 
revolution. Feeling is very bitter amongst all classes of the working 
population and peasantry, but these people are now so terrified, and, 
in the case of the town-bred working population, so weakened physically 
as to preclude any possibility of a rising against the ruling power for the 
present. Regarding the form of Government which the people desired, 
the majority, especially amongst the peasantry, wish a monarchy. 
From carefully-noted inquiries of peasants and workpeople I found 
that 90 per cent, were of this opinion. 



(3.) 
Report by Mr, G- , who left Petrograd in November, 1918. 

When we turn from the general aims of the Bolshevik policy to 
the actual situation in the big cities, as Petrograd and Moscow at the 
time when I left, it could be summed up in one word famine. As 
regards Petrograd, its population now has come down to 908,000, whereas 
in 1916 it was estimated at 2,500,000 to 2,600,000 people. Two-thirds 
of the population have been able to escape to other parts of the country, 
and the one-third remaining is reduced to starvation. The prices for 
food have risen to such an extent that all the principal commodities 
are out of the reach of the buyer. The amount of food which is allowed 
by rations is in itself absolutely insufficient to keep up life, and then it 
is hardly regularly received ; sometimes bread is not received for two 
days consecutively. Besides, it must not be forgotten that the Russian 
population is divided into four classes, the educated and capitalist class 
being put into the third and fourth category, receiving three or four 
times less than the workmen and other classes, who are in the first and 
respectable category. Even the workman who gets four times more 
than others cannot live on his ration, and must buy bread and other 
commodities in an underhand way, the open sale of them being 
forbidden. In order to give an instance, I wish just to say that an egg 
cost when I left, six roubles ; a bottle of milk, six or seven roubles ; 
a pound of bread, fourteen to seventeen roubles. The class which is the 
best fed is the Red Army and the Bolshevik officers. 

The foreign press has, as I understand, published some details 
about the September massacres in Petrograd, when more than one 
thousand men were shot in Kronstadt and the Peter-Paul Fortress 
indiscriminately, without any trial, not even the pretence of a court- 
martial ; shot, or drowned, as was the case with Father Ornatsky, 
the well-known priest of the Kazan Cathedral in Petrograd, who was 
drowned with his two young sons, who were officers, along with many 
others. Whereas the shooting in big towns has during the last months 
decreased owing to Lenin's personal dislike of Red terrorism, it is 
continuing in the provinces, where priests, landowners, physicians, 
rich merchants, lawyers, are indiscriminately shot in cold blood, without 
any trial and without any reason besides a general pretext of being 
counter-revolutionists. Arrests and domestic searches are going on as 
before. There are some thousands of men and women starving in the 



24 

prisons of Petrograd professors of universities, eminent lawyers, 
priests, generals, officers, ladies of society, bankers, &c. There are 
towns and districts where all the priests who have to wear their hair 
long in accordance with religious custom now have been forced to have 
it cut short. In other towns churches have been desecrated and bishops 
arrested or shot. 

A special measure, in order to complete the humiliation of the 
bourgeoisie, is compulsorily forced labour, to which all the bourgeoisie 
men and women are liable, and which consists in men from 20 to 60 
being sent on all sorts of jobs, discharging of coal, cleaning water-closets 
in the soldiers' barracks, digging graves in cemeteries, removing cholera 
stricken patients, &c. ; and for the women being obliged to wash the 
dirty linen of the barracks, or other like jobs for a month. In the case 
of the women with delicate health, and of elderly men, death from 
exposure or severe illness after a week or two of such labour, which is 
usually conducted under the most humiliating conditions, is not seldom. 

Under the conditions which I have outlined above it is not astonish- 
ing that disaffection is growing, and it must be said that it is growing 
in all classes of the population. It is evident that the attitude of the 
educated classes against Bolshevism is one of impotent hatred. The 
news given out by Bolshevik employees that the intellectual and 
bourgeoisie classes have allied themselves with the Bolsheviks is a 
deliberate falsehood. It is true that thousands upon thousands of these 
people have been induced to work under the Bolsheviks to accept some 
salaried situation with the government, but in respect to the working 
classes it must be borne in mind that the industrial working man has 
practically disappeared. Bolshevism has ruined Russian industry. 
The great bulk of the big factories, workshops, or mills do not work for 
a great many months, for want of raw materials. The workmen received 
from the State full pay for some time, but afterwards had to choose 
either to return to the villages or to enlist in the Red Army, and in 
most cases they did the latter. The small artisan is starving to death, 
which explains his anti-Bolshevik attitude. There remains the peasant, 
far away in his village, rich with paper money and bread, which he does 
not want to give away, but the Bolsheviks are sending armed expeditions 
to steal bread, which they want to feed the Red Army. The shooting 
of peasants every day by the Red Guards coming down for bread is an 
.every-day feature. Revolutions have broken out, and nearly every- 
where they are being quelled with blood. When we ask ourselves who 
are the classes who support the Bolsheviks, the answer would be that 
they consist of the people who are fed and paid by the Bolsheviks, the 
Red Army, and the not less numerous army of paid Government officials. 
All of them are paid more and fed better than the population amongst 
whom they live, and, with the present food conditions, it is not astonishing 
that they stick to the Bolsheviks. The Red Army and the numerous 
army of different commissioners have also an unlimited opportunity 
of plundering the peaceful population, of which they avail themselves 
to an extent which, in the small provincial towns in the country, is 
simply terrifying, and which brings around the Bolsheviks all the lowest 
classes of the population. On the other hand, it must not be forgotten 
that Bolshevism had for many years its best recruits from among the 
young workmen of big factories, who, as stated above, have now enlisted 
in the Red Army, and who form the Socialist nucleus of the State. 



25 

v 

All political parties are declared to be outside the pale of the law, 
as counter-revolutionary, and the old Socialist parties, if they try to 
make public opposition to the Bolshevist tyranny, fare no better than 
the Liberal parties. Especially the Socialist-Revolutionary party is 
subject to the most violent and bloody persecution. Under these 
circumstances, can it astonish anyone that public opinion, terrorised 
by imprisonment and numberless executions, remains dumb ? 

It must not be forgotten that the Bolsheviks have formed small 
committees of the so-called poorest peasants in each village, who are 
armed with rifles, and often machine guns, and who, being representative 
of the proletariat, have to exercise the dictatorship of the people over 
the village bourgeoisie, making up the majoiity of peasants. The well- 
to-do peasant is thus completely excluded from any public activity, and 
is kept terrorised by these committees, which in many cases are composed 
of the worst elements of the village, drunkards, ex-convicts, &c. Further, 
it cannot be doubted that the Russian people are worn out b}' the war 
and by the revolution, and that the love of peace which was always 
a permanent feature of its national character has been enhanced and 
has developed itself into an attitude of dumb suffering. 

The impartial reader of the Bolshevist press, and it must be taken 
into consideration that there does not exist any press with the exception 
of the official one now in Russia, can read in these official papers every 
day articles and information about local revolts which happen daily in 
various parts of the country, mostly villages where the peasants rise in an 
entirely unorganised way against the power of the Soviet. In the second 
part of November such revolts have taken place in nearly all the districts 
of the Government of Moscow, and were suppressed mercilessly by the 
Red Army, composed to a considerable extent of Chinese and Letts. 

As regards food distribution, it is admitted even by the Bolsheviks 
that in no department of Government is there so much corruption as 
among the numberless officials who control the food administration. 
The organisation of the food distribution is, of course, mainly governed 
by the fact that there is scarcely any food to be distributed. 

Russian industry is dead for the moment, and the Russian industrial 
workman has ceased to exist as a class for the time being. It is an 
extremely curious feature of the Russian Revolution that a movement 
which has proclaimed itself as social and democratic has achieved in 
the first instance total destruction of those social groups on which a 
social democratic organisation is mainly based, the class of the industrial 
workmen. All factories, all the important ones with a few exceptions 
of those who are still engaged on munition work, are stopped, and the 
industrial workman had either to return to the village with which he 
had no more ties in common or to enlist in the Red Army. The younger 
generation of the workmen, men of 19 to 26 years, have to a great 
extent chosen the second alternative, and it is they who form the 
Bolshevik nucleus of the Red Army. To speak of the growing success 
of the management of industrial concerns by Soviet is an absolute 
misrepresentation. It would be sufficient in order to disprove this 
statement to cite the instance of the most important factories and works 
in Petrograd, Moscow and Nishny, where factories which engaged 
usually many thousands occupy now a few hundred men. 

As regards Petrograd, the number of executions is usually taken 
at 1,300, though the Bolsheviks admitted only 500, but then they do 



26 

not take into account many hundreds of officers, former civil servants 
and private individuals, who were shot in Kronstadt, and in the Peter 
and Paul Fortress in Petrograd, without any special order from the 
Central authorities, by the discretion of the local Soviet ; 400 were shot 
during one night in Kronstadt alone ; three big graves were dug in the 
courtyard and the 400 placed before it, then they were shot one after 
another. 

The Extraordinary Commission of Petrograd had on the orders of 
the day of one of their sittings the question of the application of torture. 
It is common knowledge that the unfortunate Jewish student who killed 
Britozsky was tortured three or four times before his execution. 

The Oboukhoff works were, in their majority, supporters of the 
Social Revolutionary party, or of other moderate socialist organisations. 
They summoned a meeting of the workmen at which, by an overwhelming 
majority, a resolution was carried insisting upon the Bolsheviks putting 
an end to the civil war, and reconstructing the Government on lines 
which would admit the participation of all socialistic parties. The 
Bolsheviks answered with a general lock-out of the workmen and the 
closing of the Oboukhoff works. 

The population is everywhere divided into four classes for purposes 
of rationing, the middle and " parasitic " classes, being in the third and 
fourth divisions, getting one-quarter or one-eighth of the rations accorded 
to the workmen and the clerks, but even these rations remain mostly 
on paper, as there is not food enough to give them. 



No. 13. 

Sir C. Eliot to Mr. Balf our. (Received November 30.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, November 29, 1918. 

TELEGRAMS from vice-consul at Ekaterinburg state that officials 
are now coming to the conclusion that the Empress and her children 
were murdered in or near Ekaterinburg at the same time as the Emperor. 
Rest of evidence does not seem strong but dates may be significant. 
Emperor was murdered on the night of 16th July, and Grand Duke 
Serge, together with Princes mentioned in my telegram of 4th November,* 
were murdered at Alapaevsk on 18th July. It is hence supposed that 
murderers went from Ekaterinburg to Alapaevsk. At Alapaevsk their 
intention was clearly to exterminate Imperial family, and it is feared 
they were actuated by same motive as at Ekaterinburg. At Tobolsk 
the victims were driven some distance out of the town and thrown into 
a pit. It is supposed that something of the same kind was done at 
Ekaterinburg, and it is possible that Empress and her children were 
taken a few miles by rail, which would account for idea that they were 
removed elsewhere. 

* Sse No. 9. 



27 
No. 14. 

Lord Kilmarnock to Mr. Balfour. (Received December 6.) 

Sir, Copenhagen, November 27, 1918. 

I HAVE the honour to report that Mr. D , director of a Petrograd 

Manufacturing Company, who has under his charge about 4,000 Russian 
workmen, and who is well acquainted with their views, called at His 
Majesty's Legation and stated that the position in Petrograd was as 
follows : 

In his opinion some 90 per cent, of the soldiers of the Red Guard 
are disaffected, and would desert the moment a well-organised force 
appeared if it were properly provided with supplies of food. The 
Guard consist largely of men who have become soldiers in order to 
escape starvation, and there is no revolutionary enthusiasm among 
them. 

When he left Petrograd on the 16th instant the situation as regards 
food had improved slightly, but deaths from starvation were still a 
constant occurrence, especially among the intellectuals and those placed 
in unfavoured categories. The improvement was due to larger 
supplies of potatoes and vegetables arriving from the country. Flour, 
however, was still very scarce, only the soldiers and workmen could 
get bread. Horses were being slain, partly in order to provide food, 
partly because there was no fodder with which to feed them. 

The transport difficulties in Petrograd were getting worse, and 
it was almost impossible to move the small quantities of rye and 
potatoes which reached the stations of the capital. The charge for 
a cab, which used to be 60 kopecks, was now 100 roubles, and Mr. 
D - who used to pay 10 roubles for the transport of a load of wood 
to his factory had now to pay 300 roubles. There was hardly any 
benzine for automobiles. The city was still lighted, but the scarcity 
of fuel was very acute. 

Mr. D 's factory had not been nationalised, and owing to 
the stocks of raw materials which had been accumulated, the workmen, 
about 4,000, were still able to turn out about 7,000 pairs of shoes a 
day. Very few other factories, however, were working owing to the 
lack of raw material. 

The power of the Bolsheviks has greatly diminished during the 
last six months, and the peasants in the villages round Petrograd 
were hostile to them, largely because their supplies were being com- 
mandeered by the soldiers. Though a small force would be sufficient 
to overthrow the Bolshevik rule, it would take a long time to establish 
order in the country, as the authorities had either disappeared or been 
killed, and the people had lost the habit of obedience. 

Men were being shot every day, and the political terrorism 
continued. 

The Red Guard had sent a notice to the Council of Workmen 
in Mr. D 's factory, which had been shown to him in confidence 
by a faithful workman. It was worded as follows : 



28 

" If there is anybody in the administration of the factory who 
is undesirable, please inform us." 

And shortly afterwards two of his secretaries were arrested and im- 
prisoned. Later they were released, but one at any rate will not 
recover from the hardships he endured in prison. 

Three brothers named Stolyrov, who had a factory in the neigh- 
bourhood, had been denounced because the}^ had been rough with 
their workmen, and had been shot. 

Zinoviev (Apfelbaum) was still supreme in Petrograd, and he 
still exercised a brutal reign of terror. 

Mr. D - thought that the Bolsheviks were not contemplating 

an attack on Finland, as they were afraid of the Finnish army, but 

an attack on the Baltic provinces was likely, as the Bolsheviks desired 

to obtain food supplies and hoped to find supplies of potatoes, corn, 

&c., in Esthonia and Lettland. 

I have, &c. 

KILMARNOCK. 



No. 15. 

Memorandum on Conditions in Moscow by a British 
subject, who left Moscow on December 1. 

THE economic and social conditions in^Moscow are in a state 
of chaos. 

All trade and commerce except illicit trading which is still 
carried on by the Jews is at a complete standstill. The shops, even 
the smallest, are either closed or on the point of being closed, and all 
the places of business also. 

On account of the fuel scarcity the compression of the people 
in such houses as can be heated was becoming greater and greater. 
I was reduced from five rooms to one room, and was threatened with 
a further reduction. 

Nothing was supposed to be obtainable except on the card system, 
and very little on that ; clothing, boots, &c., were practically un- 
obtainable, and even galoshes, so necessary in Russia, could hardly 
be got. Food without cards was still procurable at fabulous prices, 
but was every day getting scarcer. Milk was 5 roubles* per glass ; 
sugar, 50 roubles per pound ; butter, 80 roubles per pound ; tea, 
125 roubles per pound ; coffee, 100 roubles per pound ; black flour, 
10 roubles per pound. 

This is not because there is a serious dearth of these foodstuffs 
on the contrary, there is plenty of everything (except perhaps coffee) 
in the country, but because the Bolsheviks will not allow it to be 
brought into Moscow. They have divided the people into four 
categories and only the two lowest, consisting of workpeople and 

* 1 Rouble = (nominally) 2s. ld. 



29 

employees of the Soviet, can get enough to live on, the other two are 
meant to starve. The different centrals, like the sugar central, the 
tea central, and the textile central, were in a state of helpless, hopeless 
chaos. Full of employees who had little or nothing to do only half 
heated, and with huge queues of waiting people who cannot get the 
information, &c., they want. 

The stability of the Soviet did not appear to me to be very great. 
It depended entirely on the well-paid Lettish battalions. Certainly 
the mass of the workpeople and peasants was not behind it. Many of 
the people working for it were only doing so to preserve themselves 
from starvation. 

It was estimated that the Red Army consisted of about 200,000 
fighting men. Many more were being drilled but so little dependence 
was placed on them that they were not entrusted with arms. Meetings 
of workmen to discuss the mobilisation order openly decided to comply 
with it, because it was the easiest way of procuring food and clothing, 
but to decline to fight. 

Great difficulty was encountered in getting regiments to leave 
Moscow for the front, and on many occasions trains intended to convey 
such troops were delayed for days. It was only by means of heavy 
disbursements that men were eventually induced to leave. It was 
reported that Moscow was almost denuded of troops and artillery. 
I was told that there were no guns for the Pskoff front, all having been 
sent south. 

There is no actual food famine in Russia ; on the contrary, there 
are enormous stocks of foodstuffs which could be spared for the rest 
of Europe. There is a famine, however, in articles of clothing and 
agricultural implements. Outside of Moscow and Petrograd, and, 
perhaps, some other centres, food was procurable at comparatively 
moderate prices, and in exchange for textile products even at really 
low prices. It is the disorganisation in the transport service, and the 
shortness of goods which the peasants need, coupled with the decrees 
of the Bolsheviks, which have brought about the present shortage of 
foodstuffs in certain localities. 

I don't know what is the signification of the terms " Red " and 
"Cold" terrors. 

All I can say is that the number of people who have been coldly 
done to death in Moscow is enormous. Many thousands have been 
shot, but lately those condemned to death were hung instead, and that 
in the most brutal manner. They were taken out in batches in the 
early hours of the morning to a place on the outskirts of the town, 
stripped to their shirts, and then hung one by one by being drawn up 
at the end of a rope until their feet were a few inches from the ground 
and then left to die. The work was done by Mongolian soldiers. 
Shooting was too noisy and not sure enough. Men have crawled away 
after a volley, and others have been buried while still alive. I was 
told in Stockholm by one of the representatives of the Esthonian 
Government that 150 Russian officers who were taken prisoners at 
Pskoff by the Red Guards were given over to the Mongolian soldiers, 
who sawed them in pieces. 



30 
No. 16 

Mr. Alston to Mr. Balfour. (Received January 4.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, January 2, 1919. 

I HAVE derived following information, which may be considered 
authentic, with regard to position in Moscow, partly from the Vladi- 
vostock press, and partly from persons having connections there : 

With the exception of the Bolsheviks, the whole population is 
terrorised almost to a point of physical paralysis and imbecility. 
Slender supplies of even the simplest food are only to be had when the 
watch of the Bolshevik guard weakens, and three-quarters of the people 
are slowly starving to death. At the expense of the poor, hoarders 
see their chance to realise enormous profits. Throughout the daylight 
hours, long queues wait to try to get half-pound of tea, potatoes, or 
a bit of fish. Tea may be anything up to 100 roubles per pound, coarse 
black bread varies from 15 to 20 roubles per pound, according to the 
section of the town in which it is sold, and sugar is 50 roubles a pound, 
when obtainable. A second-hand suit of clothes costs anything up 
to 2,000 roubles, and a pair of boots 800 roubles. Horseflesh is the 
mainstay of the population at present, but even supplies of that are 
fast dwindling. Five hundred hostages were taken to Kronstadt 
for reprisals, soon after attempted assassination of Lenin, and these 
were subjected to most horrible tortures. The people often prefer to 
starve rather than risk torture at the hands of Chinese and Lettish 
hooligans who form " militia " on streets, and cower in their cellars, 
numbed with cold. To avoid extermination, the "intellectuals" 
have largely gone into the service of Bolsheviks. Their wages are 
insignificant if compared even with the camp followers of Bolshevik 
garrisons, who, at any rate, get fed fairly regularly. 

All officers were ordered in July to report to Alexandrovsky school 
to be registered. About 20,000 appeared, and were shut up for three 
days without air, food, or sleep. Many went mad, and Lettish and 
Chinese guard mercilessly bayoneted those who attempted to escape 
when they were finally let out. 

Residents in area round Butirsky prison abandoned their houses 
owing to the numerous executions of " counter-revolutionary in- 
tellectuals." 

Every day typhoid and tuberculosis are increasing, and ordinary 
population are quite unable to procure medical supplies even at the 
most outrageous prices. 

Infants have been nationalised and become property of State 
upon attaining the age of eighteen. 

As Petrograd has ceased to be the Bolshevik headquarters, military 
situation there is better. In spite of this, after the murder of Uritsky, 
the Bolshevik commissary, the town virtually ran with blood. Owing 
to there being less food even than in Moscow, the death roll from disease 
is much higher. This is also due to the fact that, without being buried, 
corpses of horses, dogs, and human beings lie about in the streets. 

Cholera took very heavy toll in summer, as all the canals are 
polluted with decomposed bodies of men and animals. 



31 

Things are considerably better on Viborg side, but although 
Bolsheviks get food themselves, they take good care that none gets 
to the bourgeoisie from Finland side. 

It may be considered that whole population of Petrograd is virtually 
insane, if not hunger-stricken, and, unlike the people in Moscow, who 
have suffered less, it is unable to appreciate possibility of utter 
extermination of educated elements. To release and provide food for 
themselves and their armies, Bolsheviks will be forced ultimately to 
kill off the greater portion of population. In any of big towns, as 
at Petrograd, Moscow, and Kursk, a horrible massacre is possible at 
any moment. 



No. 18. 

Mr. Alston to Mr. Balfour. (Received January 6.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, January 5, 1919. 

FOLLOWING from British consul, Ekaterinburg, of 3rd January : 
" Have just returned from Perm after taken by Siberian Army 
under General Peplief. Tremendous tJooty was captured, including 
4,000 waggons, 260 locomotives, 70 per cent, of which working condition ; 
30,000 prisoners, 50 guns, 10 armoured cars, great number automobiles, 
and other material not yet counted. Part of 4,000 waggons captured 
full every conceivable domestic material stolen from shops and inhabi- 
tants, loaded for evacuation by Bolsheviks. Bridge across Kama intact. 
From interviews, local authorities and inhabitants, would appear that 
Bolsheviks subjected inhabitants to horrible repressions and cruelties, 
especially after attempt Lenin's life. Have examined witnesses who 
found bodies of their relatives killed by bayonet wounds, faces wearing 
marks boot nails ; no bullet marks found on these bodies. Instruments 
used for torturing victims also found. No data available regarding 
number people killed ; number educated people enquiring for missing 
male relatives stated by authorities as being very great. Educated 
population during last three months have been practically starving, 
food allowances only being given to people employed by Bolsheviks. 
Food supply of Bolsheviks, however, not great, one pound bad bread 
being allowed daily for workmen. Taking of Perm has great economic 
significance." 



No. 20. 

General Poole 'to War Office. (Received January 9.) 

(Telegraphic.) January 8, 1919. 

THE Bolsheviks are now employing gangs of Chinese for the purpose 
of killing officers and deserters. Peasants have been killed by these 
gangs for refusing to comply with requisitioning decrees, and even the 
families of officers serving here have been murdered. The above is 
based on authentic information. 



32 

No. 21. 
General Poole to War Office. (Received January 12.) 

(Telegraphic.) January 11, 1919. 

FROM intercepted radios and leaflets it is clear that, to allay 
hostility abroad, Bolsheviks are conducting double campaign. Leaflets 
are distributed among German troops, while decrees which are not 
intended to be put into force, and appeals are radioed to Berlin, which 
show Bolsheviks in sufficiently liberal light to bring them into line with 
German Socialists. Appeals to unite and force world- wide revolution 
are made at the same time to proletariats. It is manifest from numerous 
deserters and refugees from Central Russia efforts to destroy social and 
economic life of country have not abated. There is evidence to show 
that commissariats of free love have been established in several towns, 
and respectable women flogged for refusing to yield. Decree for 
nationalisation of women has been put into force, and several experi- 
ments made to nationalise children. I trust His Majesty's Government 
will not allow Peace Conference to be influenced by Bolshevik 
presentation of their case abroad, as their action at home is diametrically 
opposed to this. 

No. 22. 

Mr. Alston to Mr. Balfour. (Received January 15.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostok, January 14, 1919. 

I HAVE received following from consul at Ekaterinburg, dated 
the 13th January : 

" The number of innocent civilians brutally murdered in Ural 
towns run into hundreds. Officers taken prisoners by Bolsheviks 
here had their shoulder straps nailed into their shoulders, girls have 
been raped, some of the civilians have been found with their eyes pierced 
out, others without noses, whilst twenty-five priests were shot at Perm, 
Bishop Andronick having been buried alive there. 

" I have been promised the total number of killed and other details, 
when available." 

No. 23. 

General Knox to War Office. (Received January 16.) 

(Telegraphic.) Omsk, January 15, 1919. 

AN officer has just returned from a few days' visit to Perm. Before 
the revolution he was employed at Perm. He states that he arrived 
there on the 28th December. The town was captured by the Bolsheviks 
on the 24th, and they fed no one except those in their employ. He 
says he was unable to recognise his old acquaintances, as their cheeks 
were sunken, their faces were yellow, and they looked like palsied old 
men. The Bolsheviks have raised a battalion of 700 officers, but they 
will have to be fed for several weeks before they are in a condition to 



33 

fight. Starvation will, he says, claim half the population of the towns 
before June if Bolshevism is not stamped out in Russia. The peasants 
hate the Bolsheviks owing to constant requisitions, but they are better 
off. The peasants will only sow sufficient for their own ne.eds for next 
harvest. He is of opinion that Bolsheviks will not be suppressed without 
the use of outside force, as anti-Bolshevik classes are too enfeebled by 
hunger to make any effort. There are of course numerous murders. 
There was one commissary who used to have a dozen prisoners out 
every night, and before loading by ball-cartridge, made the firing 
party snap their rifles at them ten or a dozen times. As the educated 
workmen have been taken away by the Bolsheviks, the chances of the 
factories producing anything for several months is negligible. It is 
difficult to bring coal from the Ural mountains, as the bridges over 
the Chasovaya, east of Perm, have been destroyed. Is it possible 
that public opinion in Allied countries will allow Bolsheviks to continue 
this wholesale murder ? They will, moreover, increase in strength 
as Russians have to serve them or starve. This matter is not one that 
only concerns Russia, as the food supply of the world is affected. 



No. 25. 

Colonel Wade to British Peace Conference Commission, Paris, and Foreign 

Office. 

(Telegraphic.) Warsaw, January 19, 1919. 

NUMBER of Corean and Chinese units is reported to be increasing 
by persons arriving from Ukraine and Soviet Russia. Sole object of 
these units is plunder, as they are merely bandits and not a regular 
army. Gravity of situation created by this new development cannot 
be sufficiently emphasised. 



No. 26. 

Mr. Alston to Earl Curzon. (Received January 25.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, January 23, 1919. 

FOLLOWING from High Commissioner : 

"Following statements respecting Bolsheviks in Perm and neigh- 
bourhood are taken from reports sent by His Majesty's consul at 
Ekaterinburg. The Omsk Government have similar information : 

" The Bolsheviks can no longer be described as a political party 
holding extreme communistic view. They form relatively small privi- 
leged class which is able to terrorise the rest of the population because 
it has a monopoly both of arms and of food supplies. This class consists 
chiefly of workmen and soldiers, and included a large non-Russian 
element, such as Letts and Esthonians and Jews ; the latter are specially 
numerous in higher posts. Members of this class are allowed complete 
licence, and commit crime against other sections of society. 

" The army is well disciplined, as a most strict system especially 
is applied to it. 

(1057) D 



34 

" It is generally said that officers are forced to serve because their 
families are detained as hostages. The population of Perm was 
rationed, and non-Bolsheviks received only J Ib. of bread a day. 

" The peasantry suffered less, but were forbidden, under pain of 
death to sell food to any but Bolsheviks. 

" The churches were closed, for many priests were killed, and a 
bishop was buried alive. 

" This and other barbarous punishments, such as dipping people 
in rivers till they were frozen to death. Those condemned to be shot 
were led out several times and fired at with blank cartridges, never 
knowing when the real execution would take place. Many other 
atrocities are reported. 

" The Bolsheviks apparently were guilty of wholesale murder in 
Perm; and it is certain that they had begun to operate a plan of 
systematic extermination. On a lamp above a building were the words : 
' Only those who fight shall eat.'" 



Lord Kilmarnock to Earl Curzon. (Received February 1.) 

My Lord, Copenhagen, January 21, 1919. 

I HAVE the honour to report that a reliable Danish engineer, 
employed in the Ryabusinsky factory near Moscow, who has travelled 
considerably in Russia lately, and who left Petrograd on the 1 1th instant, 
reports that there is a growing tendency on the part of the Central 
Committees to disregard the local committees and to absorb all the 
power. Though the Bolshevik regime was more hated than ever, 
resistance from inside was less strong, and as nearly the whole population 
was suffering from starvation the people were physically incapable of 
throwing off the yoke of the oppressors. My informant stated that 
recently, in connection with arranging a credit for his factory, he had 
to deal with the committees, and he was surprised to find how largely 
they were recruited from former officers, directors of factories, &c., 
and he said that every day there were fewer people who refused to serve 
the Red Guard. The hostility between the soldiers and the peasants 
was less acute as the stocks of the latter were now exhausted and they 
no longer feared the arbitrary requisitions of the guards. Only the 
smaller peasants were admitted to the committees. 

The Chinese guard inTetrograd numbered about 5,000, and discipline 
in the Bolshevik army was severer than ever before and executions as 
numerous. Peasants were being mobilised, but as they resisted, they 
were always distributed in several regiments so that there should be 
no large focus of discontent in any particular regiment. 

His own factory, which had been nationalised, was still working 
and 6,000 workmen were employed. Though there were still a few 
Bolsheviks among them, the majority had gradually seceded and had 
given up their belief in Bolshevism. As the factory owned a forest 
they were still able to get fuel, and shoddy goods were turned out, which 
were handed over to the Central, but my informant states that they 
were not sold, but weie added to the stocks of goods collected by the 
Central. His factory was one of the few that were still working as, 



35 

owing to lack of raw materials and especially of fuel, one after 
another had been obliged to close down. A passenger train ran daily 
between Petrograd and Moscow and a few goods trains, but owing to 
lack of fuel it was stated that this service would be further curtailed. 

As regards food conditions, the situation was getting worse day by 
day, and in Petrograd the majority of persons were living on ^ lb. of 
oats a day. The Red Guards were better off, as they could still obtain 
small quantities of tea, sugar, and bread, but even for the highest prices 
other people could not get food.' 

Transport difficulties increased day by day as there were hardly 
any horses left in Petrograd, and innumerable formalities had to be 
gone through before a parcel could be taken from a shop -or a store. 
All transport without a permit was prohibited. 

The food question dominates all others. 

I have, &c., 

KILMARNOCK. 



Xo. 28. 
Mr. Alston to Earl Curzon. (Received February 3.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, February 1, 1919. 

FOLLOWING from High Commissioner, 30th January : 

" Consul at Ekaterinburg has forwarded a report from Military 
Investigation Commission at Verkhoturi in Northern Urals to following 
effect : 

" British workman, Alexander Smith, was arrested and kept in 
prison at Verkhoturi by Bolshevik authorities from 30th September 
to 12th October, 1918, on which latter day he was shot. Order for 
imprisonment contained no charge, and Commission state that they 
believe that he was arrested solely because he was a British subject. 

' When Government troops occupied Verkhoturi on 16th October 
they found body outside the town ' in a mutilated condition/ and gave 
it ceremonious burial. 

" I hear that Bolsheviks killed two British subjects at Perm. 
Names unknown." 



No. 29. 

Mr. Alston to Earl Curzon. (Received February 3.) 

{Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, February 2, 1919. 

FOLLOWING from High Commissioner 31st January. : 

" Following details respecting Bolshevik regime at Lisva, a town 
of 30,000 inhabitants between Ekaterinburg and Perm, were given to 
me by Mr. T , a British subject, who was there until 17th December, 
when the town was taken. 

" Life was tolerable until July. A system of rations was in force 
before Bolsheviks came into power, and was not at first abused. 

;< Terrorism began after attempt on Lenin in July. Considerable 
number of people were shot in Lisva and other towns for no apparent 



36 

reason. Persons were arrested and had to bail themselves out often 
several times, and often under threats of death. Orders were received 
to arrest all foreigners, especially British and French. Mr. T - was 
able to hide, and was only under arrest for a short time. 

" In the town there were 25 commissioners and 1,000 smaller 
officials. They drew 6,000,000 roubles salary, occupied houses of the 
upper and middle classes, and had plenty of provisions, as had also 
the soldiers. 

" Non-Bolsheviks had | pound of bread per day. 

" He thought wholesale murder or bodily torture was the exception, 
but he confirmed reports of people being led out to be shot several times. 
Many people went mad under this and similar mental agony. 

" Churches were not closed, but soldiers were forbidden attendance, 
and bells were not rung. Only civil marriages were permitted. He 
had heard nothing about nationalization of women. 

" Army was well disciplined, and he believes it is still formidable. 
Officers forced to serve in it did not seem to mind their position as 
much as might be expected. Soldiers were allowed to loot freely. 
When Lisva was evacuated 1,800 prisoners were removed to Perm. 

" Considered as a machine for executing its own purposes, he thought 
Bolshevik administration efficient and energetic. There was a regular 
service of trains between Urals and European Russia, but only Bolshevik 
officers could have passenger car, others travelling in trucks. 

" Peasantry were against Bolsheviks because they were subject to 
unnecessary requisitions, whereas workmen had much higher wages 
and did much less work than formerly. 

" Mr. T said that we ought not to treat with them as a political 
party, and that he believed conditions of life in Petrograd and Moscow 
were terrible, and much worse than in Eastern Russia." 



No. 30. 

Mr. Alston to Earl Curzon. (Received February 6.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, February 4, 1919. 

FOLLOWING from consul at Ekaterinburg, dated 1st February : 
" According to information received from General Staff here, 
prisoners returning from Germany via Vyatka report armed revolt 
of peasants of Vyatka district against Bolshevik mobilisation. Not 
only revolters themselves suffered death penalty for revolting, but also 
their whole families." 

No. 31. 

Interviews with Mr. A. and Mr. B., who left Moscow on January 21, 1919. 

MR. A. and Mr. B., two British subjects who left Moscow on the 
21st January, were interviewed at the Foreign Office on the 10th 
February about present conditions in Moscow. 



37 

Mr. B., who was a teacher in a Moscow secondary school, the 
" practical academy," gave the following information about conditions 
in the school in which he taught. This school was typical of many 
others. 

Each class has its committee, and as a rule the most popular boy 
is chosen to represent the others at the masters' meetings. The objects 
of the committees are : (1) To control the masters ; (2) to arrange 
about the distribution of food, all the boys and girls in the school being 
given a mid-day meal. This is, as a matter of fact, the only reason 
that they go to school at all. 

Both boys and girls are herded together, and there is no semblance 
of morality. The entire absence of discipline in this connection is 
having an extremely bad effect on the coming generation. In the 
classes all semblance of discipline has been destroyed. The children 
do exactly as they like, sometimes walking out in the middle of a lesson. 
This is especially the case in the lesson before the mid-day meal, as they 
are all anxious to get the first places. No punishments, no home-work 
and no marks are allowed. The attendance is abominable, the children 
coming and going just as they think fit. It is impossible to keep order, 
and the classes are simply like a bear-garden. If a master does not 
happen to be popular, the boys turn him out. Sometimes a master 
may go to a class to give a lesson, only to find the boys holding a 
committee meeting which must not be disturbed. 

At Kolomna, between Moscow and Kazan, a boy aged 18 was 
appointed commissar of the whole school, being in charge of all the 
teachers. On one occasion he closed the school for a whole week because 
one of the masters gave a boy a bad mark. 

The universities surfer from the same lack of discipline. Any boy 
of 16 years of age is entitled to enter the university without showing 
any certificate, so that even if a boy is unable to read or write, he can 
still enter the university. 

The Bolsheviks have advertised far and wide the benefits of the 
new proletarian culture. The above facts throw an interesting light 
on the way it works in practice. 

Mr. A., who is a Moscow man, gave the following information about : 
(1) the " terror " ; (2) conditions in factories with which he was 
acquainted ; (3) the shops in Moscow : 

1. The " Terror." 

Executions still continue in the prisons, though the ordinary people 
do not hear about them. Often during the executions a regimental 
band plays lively tunes. The following account of an execution was 
given to Mr. A. by a member of one of the bands. On one occasion he 
was playing in the band, and as usual, all the people to be executed were 
brought to the edge of the grave. Their hands and feet were tied 
together so that they would fall forward into the grave. They were 
then shot through the neck by Lettish soldiers. When the last man 
had been shot the grave was closed up, and on this particular occasion 
the band-man saw the grave moving. Not being able to stand the sight 
of it, he fainted, whereupon the Bolsheviks seized him, saying that he 
was in sympathy with the prisoners. They were" on the point of killing 



38 

him, but other members of the band explained that he was really ill, 
and he was then let off. Among the prisoners shot on that occasion 
was a priest, who asked permission to say a prayer before being shot, 
to which the Bolsheviks replied laconically, " Ne Nado " (It is not 
necessary) . 

2. Conditions in Factories. 

At the principal factory at Kolomna, a town on the Moscow and 
Kazan Railway, there are only about 5,000 workers out of the normal 
total of 25,000. The factory is run by a committee of three one 
workmen, one engineer, and one director. Here, as everywhere, all the 
workman are discontented and would much prefer the old management. 
The situation is intolerable. Nobody works and nobody wants to work, 
while the one and only topic of conversation is food. All the people 
are discontented because they have not got enough to eat. 

At Domodedova, near Moscow, the fine-cloth factory was still 
working before Christmas, but the output was estimated at 5 per cent, 
of the normal. The factory was run by a Committee of Workmen, but 
the owner used to meet the Committee occasionally to discuss the 
working of the factory with them, and to give them advice. All the 
workmen were discontented with the way in which the factory was run, 
and most of them wanted the old managers back again. But as long as 
the Bolsheviks pay the men high wages they will stay there, though 
they do practically no work at all. They have to pretend to be 
Bolshevik, but in reality they are not in sympathy with them at all. 

3. Shops in Moscow. 

No shops are open at all except the Soviet shops. The Bolsheviks 
close down certain shops, take down the signs, and remove all the 
material without paying for it. They then put up signs of their own 
announcing the sale of clothing, which they sell at twice the price 
which was charged at the shop from which they took the stuff. No 
new stuff is now being made at all. What is now being sold is entirely 
old stock. 



No. 33. 

Mr. Alston to Earl Curzon. (Received February 11.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, February 8, 1919. 

FOLLOWING from consul at Ekaterinburg, 6th February : 
" From examination of several labourer and peasant witnesses I 
have evidence to the effect that very smallest percentage of this district 
were pro-Bolshevik, majority of labourers sympathising with summoning 
of Constituent Assembly. Witnesses further stated that Bolshevik 
leaders did not represent Russian working classes, most of them being 
Jews. 

" As a result of refusal of 4,000 labourers near Ekaterinburg to 
support local Bolsheviks many were arrested, and twelve were suffocated 
alive in slag gas-pit, their mutilated bodies being buried afterwards, 
and ninety peasants taken out of Ekaterinburg prison, where they had 
been thrown because they objected to Bolsheviks requisitioning their 
cattle, &c., were brutally murdered. 



39 

No. 35. 
Lord Kilmarnock to Earl Curzon. (Received February 11.) 

My Lord, Copenhagen, February 6, 1919. 

I HAVE the honour to forward herewith a translation of the first 
official report on the atrocities committed by the Bolsheviks in Wesen- 
berg and Dorpat, which has been furnished me by the Esthonian 
representative here. 

I have, &c., 

KILMARNOCK. 



Enclosure in No. 35. 
ATROCITIES PERPETRATED BY THE BOLSHEVIKS IN ESTHONIA. 

In Wesenberg. 

AFTER the Esthonian troops had reconquered the town of 
Wesenberg from the Bolsheviks, the graves of those murdered by the 
latter during their short period of " terrorism " were opened on the 
17th January, 1919. The following officials were present : Town 
Governor, Aren ; President of the District Administration, Hr. Juhkam ; 
Deputy Mayor, Jakobson ; Militia Commandant, Kiitt ; Assistant 
Militia Commandant, Tenneberg ; Medical Officer of Health, Dr. Wiren ; 
and the previous Medical Officer of Health, Dr. Utt. 

The vicinity of the graves of the victims of the Red Terror showed 
with what brutal roughness the Bolsheviks had executed their victims. 
Everywhere was to be seen congealed blood amongst which tattered 
pieces of cap, bits of clothing, brains and fragments of skull with hair 
could be distinguished. In the first grave sixteen bodies were found, 
which were later photographed. Among these the following were 
identified : Army doctor, Dr. Reinik ; the Greek Catholic priest, 
Sergei Filorenski ; ambulance soldier, Ellenberg, of Reval ; the local 
merchant, Gustav Bock ; Tom's Podra, of Gut Uhtna ; a railway 
official, Tonu Poiklik, of Wesenberg ; Ferdinand Tops, from the parish 
of Undle ; Rudolf Rost, ambulance soldier, of Tudulinne ; Eduard 
Sepp, of the Estate Welsi, and the shoemaker Kolk, of Wesenberg. 
Sixteen victims were also in the other grave. The following were 
recognised : Heinrich Mikker, of Kunda ; Joh. Ed. Jarw, of Gem 
Kiiti ; Juri Juhkam, of the parish of Roela ; Hugo Lang, of the parish 
of Kiiti ; Josep Koovits, of Kunda ; Harriette von Miihlen, of the 
Tudu Estate ; Walter Pauker, the clergyman of Wesenberg ; Gustav 
Sone, from the parish of Kiiti ; von Hesse, an official of Wesenberg ^ 
Peter Sakkar, from Kunda ; Arthur Sulto, from Kunda; Jakob Raja, 
forester from the Estate of Lobu ; Hugo Rannaberg, from the parish 
of Kiiti. 

The third and largest of the graves was opened on the 18th January. 
It was 4 metres long and 2 metres deep, and filled to the top with corpses. 
Fifty bodies were found here, among whom the following were 
recognised : Rudolf Peets, of Laekwere ; Carl Erde, of Haljala ; Daniel 
Sellow, a merchant of Laekwere ; Jean Rebane, from the village of 



40 

Assanalls ; Johannes Lomberg, of Ambla ; Hindrick Roosilill, from the 
Tape Estate ; Eduard Walow, of Wesenberg ; Gustav Koolmann, of 
Wamupea ; Mihkel Klein, from the parish of Kiiti ; August Marton, 
from Malla ; Dr. Merits Ling, from Kunda ; Siim Magi, of Malla ; 
Juri Kuller, from the Inju Estate ; Johannes Marton, from Malla ; 
Konrad Preisberg, of Ambla ; Ernst Klein, from the parish of Kiiti ; 
Karl Paas, of Kuline ; Arthur Waan, soldier of the Militia, from the 
parish of Wihula ; Juri Lemming, of Ambla ; Willen Piidermann, of 
Rahkla ; Karl Knauf, proprietor of Nomkula ; Karl Pudel, from 
Rahkla ; Johannes Schmitnar, tenant of the Tapa Estate ; Frau van 
Rehekampf, of Wesenberg ; August Paas, of Kulina ; Lima Liimann, 
of the parish of Aaspere ; Jeannette, Baroness Wrangel, of Wesenberg ; 
Frau von Samson, of Wesenberg ; Leopold Aron, head of the Post 
Stage of Wesenberg ; Jaan Paas, of Kulina ; railway official Older, 
of St. Piissi ; Mihkel Marton, of Malla ; Juri Magi, of Inju ; Feodar 
Niimm, of Osel ; Bernh. Wold Lessel, of Wesenberg ; Masik, soldier 
of the people's army from the Government of Twer ; J. Heinrich 
Grauberg, of Rahkla ; Prudik Wilder, of Laekwere ; Julius Kiitsel, 
of Laekwere ; Marta Afanasjewa, Sister of Mercy, of Kunda ; Marie 
Kirsch, of Wesenberg. 

All the bodies showed signs of the rage and revenge of the 
Bolsheviks. The victims were all robbed of everything except their linen, 
their boots also having been taken. The Bolsheviks had shattered the 
skulls of thirty-three of the bodies, so that the heads hung like bits 
of wood on the trunks. As well as being shot, most of the murdered 
had been piercec] with bayonets, the entrails torn out, and the bones 
of the arm and leg broken. 

How the victims were executed by the Bolsheviks is described 
by one of these unfortunates, Proprietor A. Munstrum, who managed 
to save himself by a miracle : " On the afternoon of the llth January, 
fifty-six of us were led to the place of execution, where the grave was 
already made. Half of us, including six women, were placed at the 
edge of the grave. The women were to be killed first, as their cries were so 
heartrending the murderers could not listen to them any longer. One 
woman tried to escape, but did not get far. They fired a volley, and 
she sank to the ground wounded. Then the Bolsheviks dragged her 
by the feet into the grave. Five of the murderers sprang after 
her, shot at her, and stamped on her body with their feet till she was 
silent. Then a further volley was fired at the other victims. In the 
same way they were thrown into the graves and done to death with 
butt-ends and bayonets. After which the murderers once more stamped 
on the bodies. ..." 

In Dorpat. 

Also in Dorpat the Bolsheviks committed the same kind of atrocities 
as in Wesenberg. On Christmas evening the well-known Director of 
Fisheries, Zoological Student Max von zur Miihlen, was murdered. 

On the 26th December the following persons were shot : Mihkel 
Kiis, Alex Lepp, Alexander Aland, and Karl Soo. 

On the 9th January the Bolsheviks murdered the following persons : 
August Meos, Abram Schreiber, Woldemar Rasta, butcher Beer Stark, 
Baron Paul von Tiesenhausen, Woldemar and Joharin Ottas, Mikhel 
Kure, Friedrich Pass, Bruno von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Harald von 



41 

Samson-Himmelstjerna, Gustav von Samson-Himmelstjerna, goldsmith 
Rudolf Kipasto. 

All these persons were dragged to the Embach River and shot down. 
The dead bodies were put into the river through ice-holes. Later, 
when the Esthonian troops had reconquered Dorpat, sixteen of these 
victims of the Red Terror were found in the Embach. As could be 
ascertained from the bodies, these victims had been tortured in the 
most dreadful manner. Many had arms and legs broken, the skull 
knocked in, &c. It was evident that Karl Soo, who was shot on the 
26th December, had suffered most of all. The Bolsheviks had put out 
his eyes. On the 14th January, shortly before they were driven out by 
the Esthonian troops, the- Bolsheviks killed twenty of their prisoners. 
After an official enquiry it was ascertained that this bloody deed took 
place in the following manner : The poor unfortunates, over 200 in 
number, who were kept in the Credit-system Bank and the police 
station, had to stand in a row. The names of the victims were then 
called out. They were robbed of their clothes, boots, and valuables, and 
led to the cellar of the Credit-system Bank, where the Bolsheviks, 
with hatchet blows, shattered their skulls. In this manner the above- 
mentioned, approximately twenty persons, were murdered, and only 
the hasty flight of the Red Guard from the Esthonian troops saved the 
remaining prisoners, among whom were from sixty to eighty women. 
Otherwise they would have been done to death in the same way. Among 
the bodies of the murdered the following were recognised : Archbishop 
Platon, Recording Clerk Michael Bleiwe, of the Unspenski Church ; 
the grey-headed clergyman of the Greek Orthodox Georgs-Church ; 
Priest Nikoli Beshanitzki, Professor and University clergyman Dr. 
Traugott Hahn, Hermann von Samson-Himmelstjerna, of Kawershof ; 
Heinrich von Krasse, owner of Rewold ; Banker Arnold von Tidebohl, 
Herbert von Schrenk, Baron Konstant von Knorring, Pastor Wilhelm 
Schwartz, Councillor Gustav Tensmann, Councillor Gustav Seeland, 
Merchant Surman Kaplan, Master Potter Ado Luik, Merchant Harry 
Vogel, Merchant Massal, and co-worker of " Postimees," Karner. 

Dr. Wolfgang, of Reyher, who shortly after the murders the 
bodies were still warm examined the above-mentioned cellar of the 
Credit-system Bank, reports the following with regard to the 
appearance of the room where this foul deed took place : The floor of 
the whole room was covered with bodies, piled one upon the other 
in most unnatural positions, which could only be attributable to a 
violent death. In the middle the bodies were in three layers, wearing 
only underclothing. Nearly all had shots in the head, which had been 
received recently, because in a few cases the skull had been totally 
shattered, and in one case the skull hung by a thread. Some bodies 
showed signs of several shots. All was thick with blood, also on the 
bed, and on the walls congealed masses of blood and pieces of skull 
were to be seen. I counted twenty-three bodies, but it was easy to 
make a mistake, as it was difficult to recognise individual bodies in 
the heap. Not a bit of the floor was clear, so that I had to trample 
over bodies to reach others. The search for a sign of life was in vain. 

After a later examination of the bodies, it was found that Bishop 
Platon had a bullet in the brain over the right eye, and death had been 
instantaneous. The left side of Priest Bleiwe's face had been shattered 
from the blow of an axe. The Bolshevik executioner's axe had hit 



42 

Priest Bjeschanitzki in the middle of his face. From these blows the 
faces of both priests were so mutilated as to be almost beyond 
recognition. Both the arms and the head of Vicar Schwartz were 
hacked off. The Bolsheviks had nailed an officer's shoulder straps 
firmly to his shoulders. All the bodies and the cellar where they lay 
have been photographed. 



No. 36. 

Mr. Alston to Earl Curzon. (Received February 12.) 



(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, February 11, 1919. 

I HAVE received the following statement from a British consular 
official, who was at Ekaterinburg in September, 1918, regarding the 
situation in that town during Bolshevik regime, from 1917 until the 
end of 1918, when town was relieved by Czechs : 

Bolsheviks ruthlessly " nationalised " all property during first 
four or five months, including British firms, like Contutshtim, Syssert, 
&c., and they made constant demands on all moneyed merchant classes 
for huge contributions, with penalty of arrest and confiscation of all 
belongings unless paid promptly. Businesses of all kinds, banks, and 
houses were either placed under contrel of labour elements or nationalised, 
and to such a low level were industry and manufacture reduced that 
they practically came to a standstill. Systematic searches of houses and 
private individuals took place daily, and gold and silver ornaments, 
and even spare clothes, were taken without compensation, and merchants 
who attempted to resist or evade constant decrees from local Soviet 
were immediately arrested. Robberies and murders were frequent, 
law and order were at very low ebb, and almost complete anarchy 
reigned. A local consular corps was formed in March, 1918, consisting 
of consuls and representatives of some dozen different nationalities 
to act as an intermediary between Bolshevik Soviet and subjects of 
foreign Powers, owing to the molestation of foreign subjects. 

All public meetings were suppressed, and, with the exception of the 
daily official organ of the Bolsheviks, no papers or printed matter could 
be published. 

Czech movement on Omsk began towards the end of May. We 
were in a state of siege from the end of May to the 25th July, when 
Bolsheviks finally evacuated the town and Czechs marched in. Bolshevik 
terrorism succeeded Bolshevik despotism. Having publicly announced 
their intention of making " red terror " as dreadful as possible, they 
arrested hundreds of private citizens as hostages for the sole reason 
that they belonged to so-called bourgeoisie and " Intelligentsia." Hotels 
and private residences were requisitioned to accommodate these hostages, 
as prisons were full of them ; under armed bands of Red Guards scores 
were taken to the front to do work for " Proletariat Army," and dig 
trenches. Without semblance of a trial, many of them were shot during 
June and July. A placard on the walls of one of the gates which was 
reprinted in Bolshevik paper the following day, was the first intimation 
we had of this. This proclamation gave names of nineteen citizen 
hostages who had been shot, amongst whom were the member of a 
well-known engineering firm, Mr. Fadyef, and the manager of Syssert 



43 

Company (an English undertaking), Mr. Makronosoef. The rest were 
mostly peaceful, hard-working merchants and mostly well-known 
persons. Eight more were shot a few days later, amongst them being 
the son of a wealthy flour-miller, Mr. Markarow. Number of bodies, 
amounting, I believe, to sixty or more, were discovered after Czechs 
took the town. Subsequently it was discovered that they were shot 
in the most cruel manner, just like animals in woods, and some of them 
were undoubtedly left to die on the ground, as no pains were taken to 
discover whether their wounds were mortal or not. It was alleged by 
Bolsheviks that to prevent any counter-revolutionary movement in 
the town it was necessary to terrorise population in this manner. 
Consular corps were informed roughly that Bolsheviks would allow no 
interference, when they protested against these wholesale assassinations. 
Although they vigorously denied it, Bolsheviks began to evacuate 
Ekaterinburg about the middle of July. One of their leaders publicly 
stated that if they were obliged to leave the town they would massacre 
a thousand citizens. 

Three days before they finally left Ekaterinburg, Bolsheviks 
announced at a public meeting on 25th December that they had 
recently shot the Emperor. Their system of espionage was very perfect, 
and during whole of their regime nobody dared to utter a word that 
might be construed into anti-Bolshevism, as they were liable to be 
immediately arrested and shot. 

In addition to the above-mentioned horrors we were always 
anticipating an outbreak of typhus, cholera or other epidemic, as every- 
thing was in a state of unutterable filth, no attempts being made to 
clean buildings, offices, streets, railway stations or trains. 

Everybody appeared dejected and depressed, and decent and 
cleanly dressed people were seldom seen in the streets. 

Bolshevik evacuation was most thoroughly carried out, and it 
is estimated that they took with them over 4,000,000,000 roubles 
worth of platinum, gold, stores, and money. There is no doubt that 
there would have been a great many more murders if they had not 
been so busily engaged in this plunder, but owing to rapid advance of 
Czechs, they were forced to hasten their departure. 

There will be wholesale massacres of moneyed and merchant classes 
if Bolsheviks succeed in retaking Ekaterinburg. 



No. 37. 

Notes on Interviews with Mr. C. and Mr. D., February 13, 1919. 

MR. C. and Mr. D. were interviewed this morning in the Foreign 
Office. They both left Petrograd on the 17th January. Mr. C. was 
manager of a big firm in Petrograd, and was in prison three and a 
half months. 

In the cities the cry of the Bolsheviks has been " the proletariat 
against the bourgeoisie," though as most of the big capitalists got away, 
it has really been the oppression of the de-bourgeoisie and the intelligent 
workmen by the dregs of the population. 



44 

1. The Villages. 

In the villages poverty committees, composed of peasants without 
land and of hooligans returned from the towns, have been set against 
the peasant proprietor. Local government has been handed over to 
these poverty committees, and they take from the peasant proprietor 
his produce, implements, and live-stock, retaining what they need 
themselves and forwarding the remainder to the towns. The peasant 
will not give grain to the Bolsheviks because he hates them, and hopes 
by this means to destroy them eventually. He is armed and united. 
It is for this reason that armed requisitioning companies are sent out 
everywhere from Petrograd and Moscow to help the poverty committees 
to take the grain from the peasant, and every day all over Russia such 
fights for grain are fought to a finish till either the peasants or the 
requisitioning party are wiped out. During my stay in prison I met 
and talked to dozens of peasant proprietors arrested on the charge 
of counter-revolution. In my escape across the frontier, I slept in 
two peasants' cabins, and although they were living under the worst 
conditions, so poor that fourteen people lived and slept in a cabin a 
few yards square, they cursed the Bolsheviks with tears in their eyes. 
One of the latest decrees only allows a peasant to have one cow and 
one horse for every five members of his family. The peasant pro- 
prietors, who probably will one day be the strongest party in the future 
Russia, are anti-Bolshevik to a man. 

2. Red Army. 

No more satisfied are the soldiers. In fact the only troops the 
Bolsheviks can trust are the Lettish, Chinese, and a few battalions 
of sailors. They give them 250 roubles a month, all found, together 
with presents of gold watches and chains requisitioned from the 
bourgeoisie. Newly conscripted troops are not given rifles in Petrograd, 
except a few in each regiment for the purposes of instruction. They are 
only handed out to them at the front. For any military offence there 
is only one punishment death. Executions are done mostly by the 
Chinese. If a regiment retreats against orders machine-guns are turned 
on them, and if the commissar of the regiment cannot thus hold his 
men he is shot. All the soldiers I spoke to, even those acting as our 
guards at the prison, cursed their fate at being compelled to serve, 
the only alternative being death from hunger or execution as deserters. 
Nearly all openly expressed the hope that the British would soon come 
and put an end to it all. 

3. Workmen 

The position of the workmen is no better. At first the eight -hour 
day with high minimum wages greatly pleased them, but as time went 
on they found that owing to increased cost of living they were little, 
if any, better off. Their wages were increased, but a vicious circle 
was soon set up on which their wage increases were utterly unable to 
keep up with the high cost of living. Reduction of output further 
increased the cost. At the Petrograd wagon works the pre-Bolshevik 
cost of passenger cars was 16,000 to 17,000 roubles ; it is now 100,000 
to 120,000. At Government works, where the Bolsheviks would be 
most likely to expect support, intense dissatisfaction exists. An official 



45 

warning was issued to the workmen of the Putilof works through the 
official newspaper, stating that during a period of several weeks fires, 
explosions, and break-downs had regularly occurred, which could only 
be put down to traitors to the cause, who, when caught, would be shot. 

4. Bourgeoisie. 

The position of the bourgeoisie defies all description. All who 
employ labour down to a servant girl, or an errand boy, or anyone 
whose wants are provided for ahead, that is, all who do not live from 
hand to mouth, are considered under Bolshevism as bourgeoisie. All 
newspapers except the Bolshevik ones have been closed, and their plant 
and property confiscated. New decrees by the dozen are printed daily 
in the press, no other notification being given. Non-observance 
of any decree means confiscation of all property. All Government 
securities have been annulled and all others confiscated. Safe deposits 
have been opened, and all gold and silver articles confiscated. All 
plants and factories have been nationalised, as also the cinemas and 
theatres. This nationalisation or municipalisation means to the 
unhappy owner confiscation, since no payment is evei made. Payments 
by the banks from current or deposit accounts have been stopped. 
It is forbidden to sell furniture or to move it from one house to another 
without permission. Persons living in houses containing more rooms 
than they have members of their families have poor families billeted in 
the other rooms, the furniture in these rooms remaining for the use of 
the families billeted there. Hundreds of houses have been requisitioned 
for official or semi-official use, and thousands of unhappy residents have 
been turned out on the streets at an hour's notice with permission to 
take with them only the clothes they stood in, together with one change 
of linen. Houses are controlled by a poverty committee, composed 
of the poorest residents of the house. These committees have the right 
to take and distribute amongst themselves from the occupiers of the 
flats all furniture they consider in excess. They also act as Bolshevik 
agents, giving information as to movements. A special tax was levied 
on all house property amounting practically to the full value of the 
same. Failure to pay in fourteen days resulted in municipalisation 
of property. All owners and managers of works, offices, and shops, 
as well as members of the leisured classes, have been called up for 
compulsory labour, first for the burial of cholera and typhus victims, 
and later for cleaning the streets, &c. All goods lying at the 
custom house warehouses have been seized and first mortgaged to 
the Government Bank for 100,000,000 roubles. Any fortunate 
owner of these goods, which were not finally confiscated, had the 
possibility of obtaining them on payment of the mortgage. All fur- 
niture and furs stored away have been confiscated. All hotels, 
restaurants, provision shops, and most other shops, are now closed 
after having had their stocks and inventories confiscated. Just before 
we left a nfew tax was brought out, the extraordinary Revolutionary 
Tax. In the Government newspapers there were printed daily lists 
of people, street by street, district by district, with the amount they must 
pay into the Government bank within fourteen days on pain of con- 
fiscation of all property. The amounts, I noticed, ranged from 2,000 
roubles to 15,000,000. It is impossible to imagine how these sums can 
be paid. 



46 

5. Food Question. 

The food question in Petrograd has gone from bad to worse.' 
Elaborate food cards are given out each month covering all kinds of 
products, but for months past nothing has been given out on them 
except bread, which has for the last few weeks consisted of unmilled 
oats. There are now only three categories of food cards, the first being 
for heavy workers, the second for workers, and the third for non-workers. 
The last time bread was given out the daily allowance on card one was 
half-a-pound, on card two quarter-pound, and on card three one-eight 
pound. Hundreds of people are dying weekly from hunger, which 
first causes acute swelling of the features. Many have managed to 
get away, so that the present population is probably not more than 
600,000. Wholesale starvation has only been prevented by the large, 
illicit trade done in provisions by what are known as sack-men, who 
travel by rail or road from the village with food in sacks. Butter is 
now 80 roubles a pound ; beef 25 roubles ; pork 50 roubles ; black 
bread 25 roubles ; and eggs 5 roubles each. Dog-meat costs 5 roubles 
a pound, and horse-meat 18 roubles. Houses with central heating are 
no longer heated owing to lack of coal. The amount of wood that 
formerly cost 7 roubles, now costs 450, and only enough can be obtained 
for one room. Restaurants have all been confiscated and turned into 
communal kitchens, where the sole menu lately has been soup consisting 
of water with a few potatoes in it, and a herring. 

6. Oppression of Socialist Parties. 

The political parties which have been most oppressed by the 
Bolsheviks are the Socialists, Social Democrats, and Social Revolution- 
aries. Owing to bribery and corruption those notorious evils of the 
old regime which are now multiplied under Bolshevism capitalists 
were able to get their money from the banks and their securities from 
safe deposits, and managed to get away. On the other hand, many 
members of Liberal and Socialist parties who have worked all their time 
for the revolution, have been arrested or shot by the Bolsheviks. In 
prison I met a Social Democrat who had been imprisoned for eleven 
years in Schlusselberg Fortress as a political offender. Released at 
the beginning of the Revolution he was within eighteen months 
imprisoned by the Bolsheviks as a counter-revolutionary. 

7. How do the Bolsheviks Continue to hold Power ? 

They continue to hold power by a system of terrorism and tyranny 
that has never before been heard of. This is centred at Gorokovaya 2, 
under the title of the Extraordinary Commission for Combating Counter- 
Revolution, Speculation, and Sabotage. Originally under the direction 
of Uritski, it confined its operations to dealing with offences under these 
headings, but after his death it came out frankly as an instrument of 
the Red Terror, and since then its operations make the history of the 
French Reign of Terror, or the Spanish Inquisition, appear mild by 
comparison. People were arrested wholesale, not merely on individual 
orders on information received from spies, but literally wholesale- 
people arrested in the streets, theatres, cafes, every day in hundreds, 
and conveyed to Gorokovaya 2. There their names and other details 
were entered up, and next day in parties of a hundred or so marched 



47 

to one or another of the prisons, whilst their unhappy relations stood 
for hours and days in queues endeavouring to learn what had become 
of them. They were kept in prison two, three, or four months without 
any examination or accusation being made. Then some were accused 
and shot, fined, or all property confiscated. Others were allowed to 
be ransomed by their friends, and others released without any explana- 
tion. No trial was given. The accusation and examination were 
made together, and the examiner was generally an ex-workman, or 
even criminal. Examination was made in private. Sentence was 
confirmed by a member of the Commission, and that is the only trial 
anyone ever received at Gorokovaya 2. The climax was reached 
after the murder of Uritski attack on the British Embassy, and the 
Lockhart affair, where hundreds of people were arrested in various 
parts of the town, mostly officers, who were shot and thrown into the 
river, bound and thrown into the river, or bound, put into barges, 
and the barges sunk, all without even the formality of being taken to 
Gorokovaya 2. I was in prison from the 19th September to the 25th 
December, and I could pretty well fill a book with my experiences, 
but I will merely give a translation of an article printed in a Bolshevik 
paper, the " Northern Commune," No. 170, dated the 4th December, 
1918 :- 

"It is impossible to continue silent. It has constantly been 
brought to the knowledge of the Viborg Soviet (Petrograd) of the 
terrible state of affairs existing in the city prisons. That people 
all the time are dying there of hunger ; that people are detained 
six and eight months without examination, and that in many cases 
it is impossible to learn why they have been arrested, owing to 
officials being changed, departments closed, and documents lost. 
In order to confirm, or otherwise, these rumours, the Soviet decided 
to send on the 3rd November, a commission consisting of the 
President of the Soviet, thje district medical officer, and district 
military commissar, to visit and report on the ' Kresti ' prison. 
Comrades ! What they saw and what they heard from the im- 
prisoned is impossible to describe. Not only were all rumours con- 
firmed, but conditions were actually found much worse than had been 
stated. I was pained and ashamed. I myself was imprisoned under 
Tsardom in that same prison. Then all was clean, and prisoners 
had clean linen twice a month. Now, not only are prisoners left 
without clean linen, but many are even without blankets, and, 
as in the past, for a trifling offence they are placed in solitary con- 
finement in cold, dark cells. But the most terrible sights we saw were 
in the sick bays. Comrades, there we saw living dead who hardly 
had strength enough to whisper their complaints that they were 
dying of hunger. In one word, amongst the sick a corpse had lain 
for several hours, whose neighbour managed to murmur, ' Of hunger 
he died, and soon of hunger we shall all die.' Comrades, amongst 
them are many who are quite young, who wish to live and see the 
sunshine. If we really possess a workmen's government such 
things should not be." 

8. Bolshevik Plans for World Revolution. 

Bolshevism in Russia offers to our civilisation no less a menace 
than did Prussianism, and until it is as ruthlessly destroyed we may 



48 

expect trouble, strikes, revolutions everywhere. The German military 
party are undoubtedly working hand in hand with Russian Bolsheviks 
with the idea of spreading Bolshevism ultimately to England, by which 
time they hope to have got over it themselves, and to be in a position 
to take advantage of our troubles. For Bolshevik propaganda unlimited 
funds are available. No other country can give their secret service 
such a free hand, and the result is that their agents are to be found 
where least expected. 



No. 38. 
General Knox to War Office. 

(Telegraphic.) Omsk, February 5 > 1919. 

WITH regard to the murder of Imperial family at Ekaterinburg, 
there is further evidence to show that there were two parties in the local 
Soviet, one which was anxious to save Imperial family, and the latter, 
headed by five Jews, two of whom were determined to have them 
murdered. These two Jews, by name Vainen and Safarof, went with 
Lenin when he made a journey across Germany. On pretext that 
Russian guard had stolen 70,000 roubles, they were removed from the 
house between tpie 8th and 12th. The guard were replaced by a house 
guard of thirteen, consisting of ten Letts and three Jews, two of whom 
were called Laipont and Yurowski, and one whose name is not 
known. The guard was commanded outside the house by a criminal 
called Medoyedof who had been convicted of murder and arson in 1906, 
and of outraging a girl of five in 1911. The prisoners were awakened 
at 2A.M., and were told they must prepare for a journey. They were 
called down to the lower room an hour later, and Yurowski read out 
the sentence of the Soviet. When he had finished reading, he said, 
" and so your life has come to an enfl." The Emperor then said, " I 
am ready."' An eye-witness, who has since died, said that the Empress 
and the two eldest daughters made the sign of the cross. The massacre 
was carried out with revolvers. The doctor, Botkine, the maid, the 
valet, and the cook were murdered in this room as well as the seven 
members of the Imperial family. They only spared the life of the cook's 
nephew, a boy of fourteen. The murderers threw the bodies down the 
shaft of a coal mine, and the same morning orders were sent to murder 
the party at Alapaevsk, which was done. 



No. 39. 

Mr. Alston to Earl Curzon. (Received February 12.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostok, February 10, 1919. 

FOLLOWING from consular officer at Ekaterinburg, 8th February : 
" From examination of witnesses of various classes of population 
following evidence obtained : 

" Bolsheviks persecuted all classes of population not supporting or 
recognising their Government. House searches, requisitions, and 
arrests were made at all times of day and night on grounds of political 
necessity, resulting in wholesale pillage. Anybody possessing more 



49 

than 10,000 roubles was forced to dig trenches at front for Red Army, 
where they are under continual menace of death for slightest offence, 
and at mercy of Red Guard, very often consisting of foreigners ; many 
of these persons were murdered. Eighteen peaceful citizens, including 
priests, doctors, lawyers, merchants, and labourers were arrested at 
Ekaterinburg as hostages, and shot without any accusations being made 
against them. Sixty-five citizens from Kamishlof suffered same fate. 
The widows of these people who claimed their husbands' bodies were 
treated with outrageous insult and derision by Bolsheviks. Peasants 
in Bolshevik district who protested against requisition of their cattle 
and property were thrown into prison, and ninety murdered. Peasants 
also had their houses burnt, as many as one hundred being destroyed 
in one village. Bolshevik leaders in Ekaterinburg led a life of luxury 
entirely in opposition to doctrine they advocated, frequently appro- 
priating large sums of money and indulging in drunken orgies. Bribery, 
corruption, and extortion were rife amongst both Bolshevik officials 
.and Red Guard men. Bolsheviks particularly oppressed Orthodox 
clergy and religion. Czech soldiers witnesses give evidences that near 
Khan Bolsheviks crucified father and sisters of man who served in 
national army ; whole families of others in national army were shot. 
There is sufficient information to hand to be able to state that Bolsheviks' 
crimes in Ekaterinburg district are nothing in comparison with number 
and character of atrocities committed in Perm and district." 



No. 40. 

Mr. Alston to Earl Curzon. 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, February 13, 1919. 

MR. T has just arrived here from Ekaterinburg. When at 

Perm he says he lived in same hotel with Grand Duke Michael and Mr. 
Johnson, his secretary, who was a Russian. At 2 A.M. on or about the 
16th June he saw four of Perm " militzia " or police take them off, and 
he is convinced that they were killed. 

Previous reports of Bolshevik excesses at Perm are confirmed by 
Mr. T , who says that usual method employed by them in the case 
of merchants was to arrest them, release them, rearrest them, bail them 
again amount of bail to be paid increasing each time and to shoot 
them in the end. 



No. 41. 

Acting Consul Bell to Earl Curzon. (Received February 13.) 

(Telegraphic.) Helsingfors, February 12, 1919. 

I LEARN on good authority that Grand Dukes Paul Alexandra vitch, 
Dimitri Constantinovitch, Nickolai Michailovitch, Georges Michailovitch, 
who were all confined in Petrograd in prison for preliminary investigation, 
were removed on 29th January, 1919, to Peter and Paul fortress where, 
on the same day, without further investigations, they were killed by 
Red Guards with revolver shots. 

It is said that Princess Palej, widow of the late Grand Duke Paul 
Alexandrovitch, escaped from Petrograd after the murder of the Grand 
Duke. 

(1057) E 



50 
No. 42. 

Consul General Bagge to Earl Curzon. (Received February 16.) 

(Telegraphic.) Odessa, February 13, 1919. 

WIDESPREAD pillage by bands, murder of landowners, even of 
peasants with few acres, has created very grave situation. Seed-grain 
is largely lacking in consequence for spring sowing in Ukraine. As 
these normally cover 70 per cent, of whole area, if measures are not 
taken at once to replace supply from Kuban and elsewhere, there will 
be no crop and consequently terrible famine. This state of things 
applies to peasants as well as large landowners, the majority of whom 
have had to flee to the coast towns. 

The cardinal condition for saving Russia from famine is maintenance 
of order in occupied territory or South Russia. Thousands of peasant 
landowners, when they have moral and some physical support, will 
be able to cope with bands of robbers under whatever names these 
may act. These peasants further beg that property now existing in 
land be declared inviolable until whole question shall be settled ; 
without this assurance they do not care to risk expense of sowing for, 
perhaps, another to reap. 

The question is very urgent, for work on land in the south begins 
in three to four weeks. 



No. 44. 

Sir C. Eliot to Earl Curzon. (Received February 23.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, February 22, 1919. 

FOLLOWING report of 71 Bolshevik victims received from 
consular officer at Ekaterinburg, dated 19th February : 

" Nos. 1 to 18 Ekaterinburg citizens (first 3 personally known to 
me) were imprisoned without any accusation being made against them, 
and at four in the morning of 29th June were taken (with another, 
making 19 altogether) to Ekaterinburg sewage dump, half mile from 
Ekaterinburg, and ordered to stand in line alongside of newly-dug 
ditch. Forty armed men in civil clothes, believed to be Communist 
militia, and giving impression of semi-intelligent people, opened fire, 
killing 18. The 19th, Mr. Chistoserdow, miraculously escaped in 
general confusion. I, together with other consuls at Ekaterinburg, 
protested to Bolsheviks against brutality, to which Bolsheviks replied, 
advising us to mind our own business, stating that they had shot these 
people to avenge death of their comrade, Malishef, killed at front, 
against Czechs. 

" Nos. 19 and 20 are 2 of 12 labourers arrested for refusing to support 
Bolshevik Government, and on 12th July thrown alive into hole into 
which hot slag deposits from works at Verhisetski near Ekaterinburg. 
Bodies were identified by fellow labourers. 

" Nos. 21 to 26 were taken as hostages and shot at Kamishlof on 
20th July. 



51 

" Nos. 27 to 33, accused of plotting against Bolshevik Government, 
arrested 16th December at village of Troitsk, Perm Government. 
Taken 17th December to station Silva, Perm Railway, and all decapi- 
tated by sword. Evidence shows that victims had their necks half 
cut through from behind, head of No. 29 only hanging on small piece 
of skin. 

" Nos. 34 to 36, taken with 8 others beginning of July from camp, 
where they were undergoing trench-digging service for Bolsheviks to 
spot near Ufalei, about 80 versts from Ekaterinburg, and murdered 
by Red Guards with guns and bayonets. 

" Nos. 37 to 58, held in prison at Irbit as hostages, and 26th July 
murdered by gun-shot, those not killed outright being finished off by 
bayonet. These people were shot in small groups, and murder was 
conducted by sailors and carried out by Letts, all of whom were drunk. 
After murder, Bolsheviks continued to take ransom money from 
relatives of victims, from whom they concealed crime. 

" No. 59 was shot at village Klevenkinski, Verhotury district, 
6th August, being accused of agitation against Bolsheviks. 

" No. 60, after being forced to dig his own grave, was shot by 
Bolsheviks at village Mercoushinski, Verhotury district, 13th July. 

" No. 61 murdered middle of July at Kamenski works for allowing 
church bells to be sounded contrary to Bolshevik orders ; body afterwards 
found with others in hole with head half cut off. 

" No. 62 arrested without accusation, 8th July, at village Ooetski, 
Kamishlov district. Body afterwards found covered with straw and 
dung, beard torn from face with flesh, palms of hands cut out, and 
skin incised on forehead. 

" No. 63 was killed after much torture (details not given), 27th July, 
at station Anthracite. 

" No. 67 murdered, 13th August, near village of Mironoffski. 

" No. 68 shot by Bolsheviks before his church at village of 
Korouffski, Kamishlov district, before eyes of villagers, his daughters 
and son, date not stated. 

" Nos. 69 to 71, killed at Kaslingski works near Kishtim, 4th June, 
together with 27 other civilians. No. 70 had head smashed in, exposing 
brains. No. 71 had head smashed in, arms and legs broken, and two 
bayonet wounds. 

" Dates in this telegram are 1918." 



No. 45. 

Sir C. Eliot to Earl Curzon. (Received February 25.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, February 24, 1919. 

MY telegram of 22nd February.* 

Following from consul at Ekaterinburg : 

" Nos. 72 to 103 examined, 32 civilians incarcerated as hostages 
and taken away by Bolsheviks with 19 others at various dates between 
9th July, 7th August, 27th July, all 51 having been declared outlaws. 
Official medical examination of 52 bodies (of which 32 examined, Nos. 72 

* See No. 44. 



52 

to 103 and 20 not identified), found in several holes ; 3 from Kamishlof 
revealed that all had been killed by bayonet, sword, and bullet wounds. 
Following cases being typical : No. 76 had 20 light bayonet wounds in 
back ; No. 78 had 15 bayonet wounds in back, 3 in chest ; No. 80, 
bayonet wounds in back, broken jaw and skull ; No. 84, face smashed 
and wrist hacked ; No. 89 had 2 fingers cut off and bayonet wounds ; 
No. 90, both hands cut off at wrist, upper jaw hacked, mouth slit both 
sides, bayonet wound shoulder ; No. 98, little finger off left hand and 
4 fingers off right hand, head smashed ; No. 99 had 12 bayonet wounds ; 
No. 101 had 4 sword and 6 bayonet wounds. 

" These victims are distinct from 66 Kamishlof hostage children 
shot by machine guns near Ekaterinburg beginning of July, names 
not obtainable." 



No. 46. 

Sir C. Eliot to Mr. Balfour. (Received February 25.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, February 24, 1919. 

AN appeal to all democratic parties to unite against Bolsheviks 
has been published by the Omsk Government. Reasons given are 
as follow : 

1. Dictatorship of one class was claimed by Bolsheviks, and people 
of other classes were placed outside the law and starved. 

2. Bolsheviks have deprived educated classes of their votes, as 
they do not admit universal suffrage. 

3. Bureaucracy has been set up in place of municipal and village 
government, which has been abolished. 

4. Political organisations have replaced Law Courts. 



No. 47. 
General Knox to War Office. 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, March 2, 1919. 

FOLLOWING received from Omsk, 26th February : 

: ' Position of railway transport critical. Owing to absence of metals, 
coal, and spare parts, workshops on railways have ceased work. 
Passenger traffic continues only on Nikolaevski Railway, only military 
and food trains running on other railways. 

" Money being printed on colossal scale, 14,000 workmen employed 
in Petrograd and Pensa day and night. 300 million notes of different 
valuations are said to be daily turned out. Peasants very hostile to 
Soviet's action, and riots resulted in many quarters. 

" Discipline growing stricter in army. Return of shoulder straps 
and saluting being considered. 

" In near future the Bolsheviks intend closing all churches. Three 
priests were recently drowned by Reds in Osa." 



53 

No. 48. 

General Knox to War Office. 

Vladivostock, March 4, 1919. 

AN interview with an officer has appeared in a Vladivostock paper 
which gives an idea of the ruin that has befallen Moscow. He had 
escaped through the lines, and says that executions and arrests, to say 
nothing of hunger and cold and robbery in all its forms, are part of the 
daily life of the city. The streets are filthy and torn up, houses are 
shell-shattered and gutted by fire. Pocket-picking has become 
fashionable, and is looked on as a harmless eccentricity. Officers are 
put on to the most menial forms of work, such as street cleaning, loading 
bricks at railway stations, and a colonel is now a night watchman. 
Whilst Kuksh was in Bolshevik occupation women from 16 to 50 were 
mobilised for work, and to " satisfy the needs of the pride and flower of 
the revolution." At Goroblagodatski the Red Army threw forty-four 
bodies down a well. They were discovered later, and amongst them were 
found the bodies of a priest, some monks, and a young girl. At 
Blagoveschensk officers and soldiers from Torbolof's detachment were 
found with gramophone needles thrust under their finger nails, their 
eyes torn out, the marks of nails on their shoulders where shoulder 
straps had been worn. Their bodies had become like frozen statues, 
and were hideous to look upon. These men had been killed by Bolsheviks 
at Metzanovaya and taken thence to Blagoveschensk. 

Following is text of document belonging to a Red Commissar 
captured at front and quoted in local press : 

" Herewith I certify that the bearer, comrade Evdomikov, is 
allowed the right of acquiring a girl for himself and no one may oppose 
this in any way, he is invested with full power which I certify." 



No. 49. 

Sir C. Eliot to the Earl Curzon. (Received March 7.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, March 5, 1919. 

FOLLOWING from consul at Ekaterinburg, 3rd March : 

" Following is summary of Bolshevik investigation at Perm. 
Commencing from February, 1918, factories were managed by Labour 
Committees amongst whom criminals were to be found ; incapacity 
of these committees and general demoralisation of labouring class 
brought about complete standstill of production and rise in prices from 
which whole population suffers. 

" Bolsheviks completely disorganised school establishments by 
appointing teachers by system of voting in which students and domestic 
employees of schools took part. First-year law students appointed by 
Bolsheviks replaced magistrates in Law Courts. 

" Bolshevik policy was characterised by persecution of all classes of 
population suspected of ill-feeling towards them, especially well-to-do 
class and peasants. 



54 

" In spite of confiscation of their property well-to-do class were 
forced to pay huge contributions and many of them were arrested as 
hostages on most futile pretexts, without any accusations being made 
against them and frequently by caprice or personal spite of some 
Bolshevist commissary. 

" Those who were not shot were incarcerated under disgraceful 
conditions where they were kept under perpetual dread of being 
murdered. During arrest of these people their houses were pillaged. 

" In villages ' poor committees ' were organised, representatives 
of which were supposed to be elected by peasants ; elections were, 
however, discarded tacitly by Bolsheviks, who appoint people almost 
exclusively of criminal classes. Contributions, requisitions, and other 
tyrannies were imposed by Bolsheviks on peasants possessing land or 
other property, which resulted in insurrections in villages, suppressed 
by Bolsheviks by pillage, devastations, and massacres on large scale, 
notably at Sepytchyi and Pystor in Ohansk district August, 1918. 
Labourers opposing Bolsheviks were treated in same manner as peasants. 
One hundred labourers were shot at Motovilyky, near Perm, December, 
1918, for protesting against Bolshevik conduct. Peasants particularly 
suffered when Red Army retreated, Bolsheviks taking with them cereals, 
horses, and cattle available, and destroying all agricultural and other 
instruments they were not able to take with them. Bolshevik persecution 
of anti-Bolshevik elements reached height of its fury after attempt 
on Lenin's life, although even previously it had developed into a reign 
of terror. 

" Commissaries consisted of unintellectual labourers from 20 to 30 
years old who condemned people to death without making any accusa- 
tion against them, frequently personally taking part in murder of their 
victims. 

" Russian authorities have only just commenced investigation of 
Bolshevik crimes, and therefore it is difficult to obtain precise data as 
to number of persons killed, although, as far as we can judge, it runs 
into several thousands in Perm Government. Victims were usually 
shot, but frequently drowned or killed by sword. Murders of groups of 
30, 40, and 60 have taken place, for example at Perm and Kungur. 

" Murders were frequently preceded by tortures and acts of cruelty. 
Labourers at Omsk, before being shot, were flogged and beaten with 
butts of rifles and pieces of iron in order to extract evidence. Victims 
were frequently forced to dig their own graves. Sometimes executioners 
placed them facing wall and fired several revolver shots from behind 
them, near their ears, killing them after considerable interval ; persons 
who survived this gave evidence. 

" Girls, aged women, and women enceintes were amongst victims. 
Case of Miss Bakouyeva is an example. December, 1918, this lady 
(19 years old) was accused of espionage, and tortured by being slowly 
pierced thirteen times in same wound by bayonet. She was afterwards 
found by peasants still alive ; is now nearly cured, and has herself 
related her sufferings to us. 

" Bolshevists vented violent hatred on church and clergy, pillaged 
monasteries (such as Bielogorod and Bielogorski) , turned churches into 
meeting places and workshops, persecuted and murdered priests and 
monks ; of 300 priests in liberated parts of Perm diocese, 46 were killed 
by Bolshevists." 



55 

No. 50. 

Sir C. Eliot to Earl Curzon. (Received March 26.) 

(Telegraphic.) Vladivostock, March 21, 1919. 

FOLLOWING from consul at Ekaterinburg, 20th March : 

" Have now completed our report on Bolsheviks. Enclosures 
comprise Russian consul's unbiassed evidence of nearly 100 witnesses, 
20 photographs of atrocities committed by Bolsheviks and other 
documentary evidence obtained from Russian authorities. 

" Persons of all classes, especially peasants, continue to come to 
this consulate, giving evidence of murder of their relatives and other 
outrages that Bolsheviks in their fury have wrought, but, owing to 
necessity of limiting work in order to complete report, have been 
obliged to curtail taking further evidence. 

" Details given in my recent telegrams may be taken as character- 
istic of manner Bolsheviks murdered innocent citizens ; and, therefore, 
for reasons above mentioned, unless I hear from you to contrary, shall 
desist from sending you further names. From reports received, murder 
and pillage committed by Bolsheviks during their retreat from this front 
assumed most terrible proportions." 



No. 51. 

Extract from a Report by a British Chaplain. 

WITH the oncoming of the Austro-German armies into South 
Russia last spring, my experiences of Bolshevism entered on a new 
phase. Previously I had for many months lived in the terrorised 
city of Odessa, where the cowed and despoiled population had been 
bullied into abject submission to a brutal and despotic Bolshevik 
tyranny. The city had been drenched with blood ; murders and 
outrages in the streets as well as houses were of daily, even hourly 
occurrence ; trade was paralysed, shops looted, the bourgeoisie arrested, 
tortured, and done to death by hundreds under circumstances of 
fiendish cruelty. The Allied consuls had left, and the majority of the 
foreigners, when a general massacre of the educated population was 
arranged to commence with the extermination of 108 families. This 
last brutality was averted by the arrival of the armies of the Central 
Powers. 

Undoubtedly the rapidly accumulating horrors were deliberately 
incited by the secret German Bolshevik agents in order that the advanc- 
ing Austrian armies might not be met as foes but welcomed as deliverers 
coming to save the people from a tyranny more brutal than anything 
Russia had previously known. The scheme was entirely successful, 
the Austrian troops were received as saviours. 

The intrigue was cleverly managed. Nothing had been left to 
chance. All possibility of effective armed opposition had been rendered 
impossible by the enormous massacres of Russian officers previously 
eystematically incited by the German propagandists. The march 
into the Southern Ukraine was another stage in a Vienna intrigue, 



56 

which has been moving forward for the last fort}- years, the design 
for expansion to the East and access to the Black Sea. 

Within three days of the arrival of the Austrian army in Odessa, 
the soldiers were sent into the city with orders to fraternise with the 
inhabitants, to conduct themselves with marked courtesy and self- 
restraint, and to meet all friendly advances with conciliatory affability. 
The Russian Bolshevik troops fled at the approach of the Austrian^. 
The Black Sea fleet left the morning Odessa was surrendered. Some 
of the ships were so heavily laden with plunder they could scarcely 
make way. A large proportion of the worst Bolshevik criminals 
of the district, together with the more notorious bands of assassins 
and highwaymen, escaped with the fleet. Two of the crews, having 
murdered their officers some time before, were unable to navigate 
their vessels until help was sent from other ships. The Bolshevik 
flagship took on board the entire company from the two largest houses 
of ill-fame in the city together with their private orchestra. For 
three days before the Austrians marched into Odessa the Bolsheviks 
had divers at work from the Imperial yacht " Almas " and the cruiser 
" Sinope " dragging the harbour for the weighted bodies of the murdered 
officers, of whom about 400 had been done to death, the majority, 
after torture with boiling steam followed by exposure to currents of- 
freezing air. Others were burnt alive, bound to planks which were 
slowly pushed into the furnaces, a few inches at a time. In this way 
perished General Chourmakof and many others of my acquaintance. 
The bodies now recovered from the water were destroyed in the ships' 
furnaces that no evidence might remain to be brought before the 
Austro-Germans. Later a member of the Austrian Staff told me they 
had been supplied with a list of names of over 400 murdered officers 
from the Odessa district. 
January, 1919. 

/ No. 52. 

M . M to Earl Curzon. (Received February 8.) 

Moscow, January 12, 1919. 

I HAVE the honour to report that the food question in Moscow 
is growing more and more acute with every day. Nominally the 
population of this city has to obtain its food by the card system, cards 
of three 'categories having been introduced and the quantity of food 
available distributed in the following proportions : 

Category 1. Those working manual work . . . . 4 

2. Those working intellectual . . . . 3 

,, 3. Those having no employment . . . . 2 

The difficulty, however, is that no food, except black bread, is 
available for distribution, and the quantity of bread distributed at 
present, namely, i-pound for the first category, | -pound for the second, 
and |-pound for the third, is completely insufficient to keep one alive. 
Other foodstuffs must be obtained from speculators at exorbitant 
prices, the seller as well as the purchaser running the risk of a heavy- 
fine or imprisonment if denounced, as traffic in foodstuffs is strictly 
forbidden. 



57 

Thousands of men and women are going daily to distant country 
places with the object of purchasing and bringing into town some 
provisions, thus disarranging the regular railway traffic. 

It is, however, not an easy matter to bring provisions into Moscow, 
as cordons of soldiers are searching passengers' luggage at country 
stations, and will take away, at their discretion, anything they think 
superfluous. 

To illustrate the high cost of living at Moscow, I beg to enclose 
herewith a list of the foodstuffs which are still obtainable, together 
with the prices at which they are sold. 



Enclosure. 



Food Prices at Moscow. 



Denomination from roubles to roubles per Ib. 

Black Bread 

White bread not obtainable . 

Rye flour 

Wheat flour 

Meals 

Rice 

Potatoes 

Carrots 

Sugar 

Butter 

Tea 

Sunflower oil . . 

Horse flesh 

Beef 

Mutton 

Pork 

Lard and bacon 



Roubles per Ib.* 

12 to 14 



15 

20 

15 

40 

4 

3 

90 
100 
90 
40 
12 
27 
30 
40 
70 



16 
25 
20 

5 
4 

100 

120 

100 

45 

16 

30 

35 

45 

80 



It is, however, impossible to obtain always provisions even at 
these prices. 



No. 53. 

Lord Kilmarnock to Earl Curzon. (Received February 24.) 

My Lord, Copenhagen, February 17, 1919. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit, herewith, translations of two 
further reports oh the atrocities committed by the Bolsheviks in the 
Baltic Provinces which have been furnished me by the Esthonian 
Provisional Government here. 

I also enclose seven photographs of the victims of the massacres 
by the Bolsheviks at Wesenberg and Dorpat from the same source. f 

I have, &c., 

KILMARNOCK. 



* 1 Rouble (nominal) = 2s. If rf. 1 Russian Ib. = 14-4 oz. 
f Not reproduced. 



58 

Enclosure. 
BOLSHEVIK ATROCITIES IN ESTHONIA. 

Further Supplementary Reports. 

ON the 25th December the Bolsheviks shot the steward, Karu' 
the foreman, and the housekeeper, Sitau, of the Kiltsi estate. Before 
death, the victims were cruelly tortured. Besides these, the author, 
Woldemar Rosenstrauch, and three other persons were shot. 

According to the report from the leader of an attacking squadron, 
Lieutenant Jakobsen, the Bolsheviks murdered two brothers, Hendrik 
and Hans Kokamal, of Piksaare, on the 26th January. They crushed 
the head of the former by two blows of an axe, and shot the latter. 
Besides this, they robbed the victims of their clothes and boots and tore 
their linen, which, being bloodstained, was useless to them. 

In Sagnitz, in the Walk district, the head forester, Hesse, and the 
book-keeper, Wichmann, were shot by the Bolsheviks. As well as the 
graves of these two victims, seven more were discovered at the same 
place. 

The Blood-Bath in Walk. 

Bolshevism raged more in Walk than anywhere else, as the 
Bolsheviks remained longest in power there. The number of persons 
murdered by them is great, but not definitely known. At all events 
they are estimated at from 350 to' 450. Besides, 600 to 700 persons 
were carried off by the Bolsheviks. From the report of the inhabitants 
of the district, these unfortunates were murdered on the way. 

The murders were committed in the same manner as elsewhere. 
The unfortunates, who belonged to different classes of society, were 
arrested on all sorts of pretexts, kept prisoners a few days, and then, 
in groups of twenty to thirty, led out of the town to the place of execu- 
tion, where graves were already prepared for them. Every night, 
twenty to thirty persons were executed without examination or trial. 
Before being shot, the victims were tortured in every possible way. 
All the bodies bear marks of many bayonet thrusts as well as gun 
wounds. The skulls are shattered and the bones broken. Even after 
death, when the bodies were stiff, the Bolsheviks hacked off the arms 
and legs and broke the bones of their victims. 

The Bolsheviks have instilled such terror into the hearts of the 
local inhabitants, that they dare not even talk of the Bolsheviks' deeds, 
and therefore it is difficult to obtain a true report of all their atrocities 
in Walk. 

An Esthonian soldier of cavalry was taken prisoner by the 
Bolsheviks and was to be executed in Walk along with many others. 
The Bolshevik bullets, which killed so many of his comrades, did not 
hit him, and he succeeded after the murder to escape from the common 
burial-place. He describes one of those terrible blood-baths in the 
following manner : 

" They took our caps, coats, and cloaks. Thirty-five armed 
Bolsheviks surrounded us in order to prevent any attempt at escape. 
Our hands were bound behind our backs. Besides this, we were fastened 
in couples, and then each pair joined by a long rope, so that we marched 
all attached to the one rope. Thus we were led to death. As I 



59 

protested against this barbaric treatment, the Bolshevik officer struck 
me twice on the head with a riding- whip and said, ' Shooting is too good 
for you, your eyes ought to be put out before death.' At the word of 
command, the Bolsheviks fired a volley. The bound group fell to earth. 
I also was pulled down by the others, though I had not been hit. The 
Bolsheviks fired four rounds on the fallen. Fortunately, I again was 
missed. Then the executioners fell upon us like wild animals to rob 
us. Anyone who still moved was finally killed by bayonets or blows 
from the butt-ends of rifles. I kept as still as possible. One of the 
Bolsheviks took my boots. Another looked at my stockings. ' Good 
stockings/ he murmured, and pulled them off." 

It is reported from Werro : 

The rapidity with which the Esthonian troops occupied Werro 
saved the lives of more than 200 people. There were 183 persons in 
prison, for whom a similar fate was intended as befell those in Dorpat 
on the 14th January. The lists were already made out. But the 
Red Guard took flight at the approach of the Esthonian troops. Only 
the warders remained behind, and they opened the prison doors. 
Altogether some 100 people were to have been shot in Werro near the 
Russian cemetery, Kaseritzschen lake, and Kirrumpah redoubt. On 
the arrival of the rescuers many of the graves were not yet filled in, and 
a number of bodies lay exposed in the snow. Several women were 
also shot, and especially ghastly was the murder of Frl. Irmgard Kupffer. 
The following are the names of people who are known to have been 
murdered in Werro : Barber Kuns, Solicitor R. Pihlak, House-owners 
Kond and Wierland, Forester Matson from Erastwere, Pastor Sommer, 
and Hr. Wreemann. The names of most of the victims are unknown, 
for the greater number did not belong to Werro, but had been carried 
off there from the neighbouring villages and shot. The Bolsheviks 
also kept secret the number and names of their victims. 

It has already been mentioned that, according to the Bolshevik 
newspaper ' Tooline," a number of counter-revolutionaries were 
murdered in Werro on the 14th January. Now information is brought 
by Merchant P., of Polwa, who was led to death with the above- 
mentioned victims, but who escaped the massacre. He reports the 
following : " The twenty- four men who were condemned to death were 
led to a lake. There they were ordered to undress and to run home. 
The victims obeyed, but scarcely had they turned their backs when 
the Bolsheviks fired a volley at them. P. saved himself by throwing 
himself on the ground in good time. The Bolsheviks, thinking he was 
dead like the others, went off. Then P. got up and went away. Three 
or four victims saved themselves in this way, whilst the others were 
fatally shot by the Bolsheviks." 

A few days after the retreat from Dorpat the Bolsheviks shot 
three people, namely, Takk, Waltin, and Antzow. 

According to later news, the following people were shot by the 
Bolsheviks : Steward Hansen of the Arral estate near Odenpah, with 
his son, and Herr Seen, the owner of Saarjerw, in Polwe. 

It is reported from Walk that, among others, the Bolsheviks shot 
Police Inspector Koch, and the former Ensign Rudolf. They carried 
away the following persons : Pastors Wiihner, Uns, Janes, Michelson, 
Priests Protopopow, Sirnis, and Merchant Wassili. 



60 

No. 54. 



Summary of a Report on the Internal Situation in Russia. 

THE following is a summary of a report on the internal situation 

in Russia which has been received from Mr. K , a member of the 

British Printers' Trade Union, who left Petrograd on the 9th January, 
1919. Mr. K - was also a member of the Russian Printers' Trade 
Union ; he travelled extensively in Russia and was received everywhere 
as a working man. He had, therefore, an exceptional opportunity 
of studying the conditions in Soviet Russia. Reports have been received 
from various sources of the growing opposition to Bolshevik rule among 
a certain section of the Russian population, and Mr. K 's account 
tends to confirm these reports : 

(i.) Conditions in the towns. Since the beginning of November, 
1918, there has been an increasingly strong feeling against 
the Bolsheviks among the intelligent portions of the working 
classes of Petrograd, Moscow, and other centres. In the 
early days of their power the Bolsheviks were enthusiasti- 
cally supported by the working classes in the towns, but 
latterly the more enlightened have become convinced of the 
failure of the Bolsheviks' experiments at social reform. 
They have, however, nominally remained Bolsheviks, as 
there is no other alternative, since the Bolsheviks control 
the food supplies and hold all the arms in the country. 

Mr. K , in support of the foregoing, quotes views 

expressed to him by members of various factory staffs, and 
he cites cases of strikes in large factories, such as the 
Putilov, Obukhovski, Treugolnik, of which confirmation 
has been received from other sources. All factories are 
controlled by the Soviet of People's Economy. The 
Commissars are inexperienced, and great difficulty is 
- experienced in obtaining good workmen, with the result 
that the output of the factories has greatly decreased, in 
some cases to 10 per cent, of the original output. 

.Note. Further confirmation of the reported opposition 
of a section of the working population to Bolshevik rule 
is found in a recent Bolshevik wireless message, which 
states that 60,000 workmen are or\ strike in Petrograd, 
demanding an end to fratricidal war and the institution of 
free trade. 

(ii.) Conditions in the countryside. A similar change has occurred 
in the attitude of the better-class peasants. At first 
Bolshevik innovations were welcomed in the countryside, 
where, also, feeling was bitter against the English, who were 
accused of the desire to exploit Russia for their benefit. 
This attitude, however, underwent a change when the 
Poverty Committees were instituted. These committees 
were composed of the worst elements of the villages rein- 
forced by 'Bolsheviks from the towns, with the result that 
village life became intolerable. Respectable peasants, to 



61 

remedy this state of affairs, decided to join these com- 
mittees with a view to exercising their influence upon them, 
and in many cases were successful. This led to a change in 
the constitution of the committees, and the Soviet authorities 
are now endeavouring to regain their former control in 
this respect. At the same time the peasants' attitude 
of hostility towards the English disappeared, and the wish 
was expressed in many quarters that the latter would 
come and deliver Russia from Bolshevik rule. 

(iii.) Religious revival. Another important factor in the situation 
has been a strong revival of religious feeling in the towns 
and countryside ; the result, apparently, of the revulsion 
caused by the wholesale persecution and murder of priests 
by the Bolsheviks. The change of attitude in this respect 
is manifest by the great increase in church attendance, 
which in the early days of Bolshevik rule was chiefly 
confined to women, and by the increasing boldness of the 
priests in denouncing the Bolsheviks. It is noteworthy, 
in the latter respect, that the priests are acting with 
increasing impunity a fact which appears to indicate that 
the Bolsheviks are afraid of antagonizing public opinion 
over this question. 

2. Anti- Bolshevik conspiracy. In the above connection, and as 
further evidence of the growing opposition, in the interior, to the 
Bolsheviks, it is of interest to note that, according to the Bolshevik 
wireless news of the 14th February, an anti-Bolshevik conspiracy on 
the part of Left Social Revolutionaries has been discovered. The 
headquarters of the conspiracy were at Moscow. The leaders, it is 
stated, which include Mme. Spiridonova, Steinberg, Trutovski, Prota- 
povitch, and Rosenblum, have been arrested, and the movement has 
apparently been completely forestalled. It is stated that documentary 
evidence shows that the object of these Left Social Revolutionaries was 
to overthrow the Soviet Government and to establish an all-Russian 
Government. As a preliminary step, terroristic acts were to be carried 
out against Soviet leaders ; these, however, were to be carried out 
independently by local organizations with a view to avoid compromising 
the whole movement. Steps had been taken to institute anti-Bolshevik 
propaganda in the army and among the peasants, who were to be incited 
to rise. The chief activities of this organization had apparently been 
directed towards White Russia, where in the " Nash Put " (the Vilna 
organ of the Left Social Revolutionaries) an anti-Bolshevik agitation 
had already commenced. In White Russia it was apparently the aim 
of this organization to seize power on the evacuation of the German 
forces. 

Note. It is noteworthy that, at the same time as this reported 
conspiracy has been in progress, members of the Left Social Revolutionary 
Party, who formerly belonged to the Constituent Assembly at Ufa, 
have been negotiating with the Soviet Government with a view to 
combining with the latter. It is not clear, therefore, how far these 
former members of the Constituent Assembly really represent the Left 
Social Revolutionary Party. 



62 

No. 55. 
Report by Mr. J . 

IN making this report I propose to deal with conditions as they 
appear to me at present existing in such parts of Russia as are known to 
me, namely, the Vladimir and Moscow Government, under the following 
headings : 

1. Food and price of same. 

2. Wages. 

3. Railways. 

4. Education. 

5. The press. 

6. Condition and feeling of the general public. 

7. Business and condition of industry. 

1. Food of all kinds is difficult to obtain, and in many cases it is 
necessary for journeys to be taken in order to obtain same. Prices are 
abnormal, and in many cases entirely out of the reach of all classes. 
A system of rationing by means of cards is in force, but the quantity 
allowed per person varies according to the class of society to which such 
persons belong. 

The classification for bread is as follows : 

(1) Labourers performing heavy manual work, f-lb. of black bread 
per day ; (2) those doing lighter work, ^-lb. per day ; (3) clerical 
workers, J-lb. per day, and after these, those living on capital, j-lb. per 
day. The following were the prices in Moscow at the time I left, and those 
who could not pay these prices had either to go without or make long 
journeys into the country for the purpose of trying to obtain food at a 
cheaper rate, but this is now becoming more and more difficult to do. 

Black flour, from 500 to 600 roubles per pud (40 lb.). It is very 
difficult to obtain ; being brought to Moscow in quantities of 2 to 3 puds 
at a time by meshechniks (men who go to Southern Russia and buy the 
flour there at from 60 to 100 roubles, and bring same to Moscow and sell 
at the price named above). 

. White flour cannot possibly be obtained. 

Meat is obtainable in very small quantities at the following prices : 
Soup meat, 25 roubles per lb. 
Mutton, 30 to 40 roubles per lb. 
Pork, 60 to 70 roubles per lb. 

Horseflesh has now become very scarce, and very hard to obtain'at 
18 roubles per lb. 

Dog meat. Two shops have been opened in Moscow for the sale of 
this meat, the price being 6 roubles per lb. 

Sugar, very difficult to obtain at 60 to 65 roubles per lb. 

Tea is very scarce indeed, even at the price of 150 to 200 roubles 
per lb. 

Butter, when same can be obtained, costs 120 roubles per lb., but 
is now practically unobtainable ; no other fats are obtainable, with the 



63 

exception of certain fish oil, which is the only fat available for cooking 
purposes. 

Potatoes are now very difficult to obtain, and then only at a cost 
of 160 to 200 roubles per pud of 40 Ib. 

Milk is very scarce indeed. 

Oats very difficult to obtain ; price, 240 roubles per pud. 

The following articles cannot be obtained at any price : Coffee, 
cocoa, rice, and cereals. 

2. Wages have increased considerably, but, despite this fact, the 
general body of workers are far worse off owing to the purchasing 
value of money having decreased far more proportionately than wages 
have increased. 

Workers in flour mills prior to the war were paid from 20 to 40 
roubles per month and at present receive from 200 to 500 roubles per 
month. 

Prior to the war, bread cost 1 r. 80 k. per pud and meat 15 kopeks 
per Ib. A comparison with the present prices given will show that workers 
are at present in a far worse position than previously, and I can con- 
fidently state that many of them now realise this and would gladly 
revert to the old conditions if only this were possible. 

3. Railways. Through lack of material and technical knowledge 
necessary to effect repairs, together with the increasing shortage of 
fuel and the reduction of output on the part of the railway employes 
consequent upon maladministration, disorganisation and lack of 
discipline, the locomotives and rolling stock available for traffic is 
rapidly decreasing, and as the number of persons desiring to travel is 
increasing, all trains are very much overloaded and the passengers are 
often packed so tight together as to be practically unable to move. 

It has been found necessary to use heavy goods engines, through 
lack of light passenger engines, for the purpose of drawing passenger 
trains, and the only carriages now in use are similar to our cattle trucks. 

These trucks are so packed that the decencies of life cannot be 
observed, one having often to remain therein thirty-six hours or more 
before it is possible, owing to the pressure of fellow-passengers, to 
descend. 

Under these conditions, transport by rail must eventually cease 
altogether. 

4. Education has practically ceased. The scholars have a president 
and committee who decide all matters concerning the respective school. 

In most schools dining-rooms have been opened, and the children 
are given free meals, and they practically only go to school in order 
to obtain food. But in many places, owing to the uncleanly and filthy 
manner in which food has been served, these dining-rooms have had 
to be closed. Within my own knowledge such a dining-room in a small 
town in the Vladimir Government had to be closed, the children having 
contracted venereal disease through the filthy condition of the utensils 
used in serving the meals. 

5. The Press. Only two daily papers are issued in Moscow, i.e., 
the " Isvestia of the Soviet " and " Pravda." These papers are edited 
by leading Bolsheviks, and of course contain only opinions and state- 



64 

ments likely to further the cause of Bolshevism, and nothing is allowed 
to be published in any way antagonistic to or critical of Bolshevism. 

In January last a weekly paper, issued on a Wednesday, called 
" Vperiod," supposed to be owned by the " Menshevik Party," though 
considered to be controlled by the Bolsheviks, was allowed to be 
published. In this paper, articles were allowed to appear which were 
a little more free, but the paper was stopped after the fourth number 
had been issued. It is the general opinion that if the truth were allowed 
to be published for a period of one week only, a great awakening of 
the people would result. 

6. Condition and Feeling of the People. Suffering from malnutri- 
tion, lack of fuel, and the intense cold, also having nearly given up 
hope of the help of the Allied nations which they have for so long 
been expecting and anxiously awaiting, the educated professional 
and merchant classes are now entering upon a state of despair, 
resignation, and indifference to all questions other than food. From 
my own experience I can safely state that at least 80 per cent, of the 
population in the district where I resided, including both the educated 
working and peasant classes, are strongly opposed to the present 
masters of Government and to Bolshevism. 

The fact that many of these people have joined the Red Guard 
is not of itself evidence of a belief in Bolshevism or in the Government, 
but is in the majority of cases a step taken in desperation for the 
purposes of obtaining food and other things which could not be obtained 
in any other manner, or through being made to join by the present 
system of compulsory mobilisation 

I am personally acquainted with several officers of the old army 
who have been compelled to join the Bolshevik army through fear 
of the consequences which would fall upon their near and dear relations 
should they refuse to do so. 

Should an officer of the old army fail to present himself when called 
upon to join the present Bolshevik army and evade arrest, his wife 
and children, if married, or his father or mother, if single, would be 
punished probably by imprisonment or worse. All these officers are 
strictly watched, and any occupying important positions have con- 
stantly with them a political " Komisar," to whom all orders given 
must be shown and approved by him before being transmitted ; should 
disloyalty be suspected the officer would immediately be shot. 
Desertion both by officers and men in the front line is very great, and 
is upon the increase. All these people, both officers and men, are 
potential deserters to any outside force which would offer them pro- 
tection and food. 

Prior to my leaving Moscow, typhus had broken out, claiming 
many victims, and was spreading rapidly ; and it was feared that the 
spring and summer months would spread this disease to an uncon- 
trollable extent. When I left all hospitals were full, patients lying 
on the floors and in the corridors. 

7. Business and conditions of industry. Private trading no longer 
exists, the only shops open being those of the Bolsheviks. 

Raw materials are scarce and difficult to obtain, and many factories 
and mills have consequently to be closed. 



65 

The provision of raw material for the flax mills have been placed 
in the hands of the Centre Textile Committee, and no raw material 
may in future be obtained direct. 

Though the Committee had been in existence for several months, 
no raw material had been supplied by them to my mill up to the time 
of my leaving, and only two weeks' supply was then in hand, being 
the balance left from a large stock. 

For the past year the workers have been in control of all mills, 
and as an example of the methods adopted, I state below the conditions 
appertaining at the mill where I was General Manager, a mill employing 
6,500 workers, two-thirds of whom were women and one-third men. 
In the first instance a committee was elected from the workers by the 
workers. The Committee consisted of 24 men, and from these the 
following three sub-committees were formed : 

(1.) Controlling Committee, consisting of six. 

(2.) Food Committee, consisting of four. 

(3.) The Enlightening Committee, consisting of four. 

The remaining ten formed the Presidium or Council. 

The Presidium sat every day in a house in the mill-yard from 
9 A.M. till 3 P.M., and the President of the Workers' Committee always 
presided at the sittings of the Presidium. The duties of the Presidium 
were to receive all complaints from the workers, and adjust them to 
the workers' benefit, whether the complaint was of a reasonable nature 
or otherwise. The result was a continual unnecessary and annoying 
interference with the inside management of the mill. For instance, 
should the spinners complain, say, that No. 14 yarn is working badly, 
they would call for the man superintending the material department, 
and tell him to put in higher material, without taking into consideration 
the loss incidental to such procedure. It was therefore a constant 
battle to prevent the Presidium from doing this manner of injurious 
actions. The duties of the Controlling Committee are to control all 
buying and selling in connection with the mill. No money can be 
paid for goods delivered, or for work done without their signature. 
Nothing can be bought without their consent, and all articles bought 
in the district must be bought by the members of the committee 
themselves. Owing to this, these men, having no idea of the quality 
of an article, very often buy inferior goods at higher prices than would 
be given by an expert. They control every action of, and are con- 
stantly interfering with the administrative staff, and so confuse and 
bother the men employed on this work, until they are unable to perform 
their duties, and lose all interest and initiative. 

The Food Committee look after the obtaining and distribution of 
foodstuffs, and are constantly travelling all over the country seeking 
food, but are very unsuccessful in this purpose, and therefore have very 
little to distribute. 

The duties of the Enlightening Committee are rather obscure, but 
appear to consist first of the propagation of Socialistic principles, and 
they do this by buying literature of a Socialistic nature, of course, for 
the Workers' Club, and second in providing amusements for the workers 
by organising concerts, dances, &c. The great desire of the members 
of all these committees seems to be to get commandeered, either by the 
General Meeting or by their own committee, upon the grounds of 

(1057) F 



66 

urgency to go to some other, town or district for some reason or other, 
and when they are on these expeditions they receive 50 roubles per day 
for their expenses, besides their daily wage, which is paid out of the 
Mill funds, and very often they have the possibility of receiving a good 
round sum by way of bribes when buying something for the Mill. All 
these committees, though elected in the first instance by the majority 
of the workers, are now practically self-elected, as the majority of the 
workers are so inert, uninterested, and tired of the whole Bolshevik 
system that they do not trouble to attend for the purpose of voting. 
The elections generally take place at meetings with not more than 
300 or less workers present out of the 6,500, and the members of the 
committee have generally pre-arranged who will be chosen, and have 
their supporters who arrange matters as required. 

All these committees very soon lose the trust of, and are not in 
favour with those who have elected them, but are generally re-elected, 
as stated before, and again the same things go on. 

Tsekhovoi Committees. Besides the committees before named, in 
each department three to five workers are elected as a Department 
Committee. The workers composing this committee are taken from their 
usual work and have an office in their particular department. They 
walk round the department keeping order and giving directions as 
to what is and what is not to be done. 

In the giving of these directions the manager of the department 
concerned is often entirely ignored. Nothing can be done in each 
respective department without the members of the committee being 
informed and agreeing, and there is constant friction and misunder- 
standing because of this the manager finding it necessary to do certain 
things, and the committee not allowing him, and vice versa. In the 
majority of cases the administration loses heart and does not protest, 
as if they go against the committee there is a general meeting of workers, 
and it is decided to discharge the manager or master who has gone 
against the workers, and this decision is carried out. In my own case 
I prevented this taking place on several occasions with my managers 
by calling the committee together and informing them that if they 
discharged the manager concerned I should throw up my situation and 
leave the mill ; this threat having the desired effect up to October, 1918. 
I was able to adopt this attitude owing to the fact that I knew the 
majority of my workers held me in high esteem and trust, as it was 
known that in my twenty years of mill life in Russia I never did anything 
in haste, and though very strict, tried to be just. In October, 1918, 
I considered it desirable, in my own interests, to live in Moscow, and 
I then only visited the mill once a month. After I did this two men were 
discharged one the manager of our turf fields and one of the head 
superintendents. On January, 1919, the mill was fully nationalised, 
and the workers were ordered to elect a directorate of five. I was the 
first director elected by the workers, only two voting against me out 
of 6,500. I mention this fact in order to show that my claim, set 
out above, to the esteem and respect of my work-people is not an 
unfounded one. 

Below I give brief particulars of output obtained prior to and after 
the revolution : 



67 

Output before revolution ; mill working 18 hours a day : 

Spinning mill : 1,000 to 1,100 puds a day. 
Weaving mill : 800 to 8,500 pieces of linen cloth at 55 to 60 
arshines each. 

Output winter of 1918-19 ; mill working 16 hours per day : 

Spinning mill : 450 to 500 puds per day. 
Weaving mill : 400 pieces per day. 

This production was exceptional, as at other mills in our line the 
turnover was much worse. 

For the last nine months the financing of the mill has been conducted 
in the following manner : To obtain money for wages, &c., we prepared 
invoices of finished goods and gave these into the Centre Textile, who 
gave us 75 per cent, of the value of the invoice, and held the balance 
until the delivery of the goods according to the instructions of the 
Central Textile, when the remaining 25 per cent, was paid. When 
presenting the invoice an estimate showing in detail the proposed 
expenditure was also required by them. Always hoping that some 
change in the control of the mills might take place, and it being 
apparent that the system at present in vogue could not permanently 
exist, our whole object was to retain in our warehouses as much as 
possible of finished goods, in order that, if the original owner was again 
allowed to take possession, goods would be available which could be 
readily turned into cash, and so enable the .owner to continue working 
the mill. This was the only step possible that could be taken to protect 
the original owner's property. When I left the above-mentioned 
mill we had in the warehouse finished cloth goods to the value of about 
30,000,000 roubles. 

Foreigners such as myself remained at our positions to the last 
possible moment in the hope of a normal Government in Russia and 
return of property to its former owners. 

March 20, 1919. 



No. 56. 
Rev. B. S. Lombard to Earl Curzon. 

Officers' Quarters, 8, Rothsay Gardens, Bedford, 

My Lord, March 23, 1919. 

I BEG to forward to your Lordship the following details with 
reference to Bolshevism in Russia : 

I have been for ten years in Russia, and have been in Petrograd 
through the whole of the revolution. 

I spent six weeks in the Fortress of Peter and Paul, acted as 
chaplain to His Majesty's submarines in the Baltic for four years, and 
was in contact with the 9th (Russian) Army in Roumania during the 
autumn of 1917 whilst visiting British Missions and hospitals, and had 
ample opportunity of studying Bolshevik methods. 

It originated in German propaganda, and was, and is being, carried 
out by international Jews. 



68 

The Germans initiated disturbances in order to reduce Russia to 
chaos. They printed masses of paper money to finance their schemes, 
the notes of which I possess specimens can be easily recognised by a 
special mark. 

Their Tenets. 

Radically to destroy all ideas of patriotism and nationality by 
preaching the doctrine of internationalism which proved successful 
amongst the uncultured masses of the labouring classes. 

To obstruct by every means the creation of military power by 
preaching the ideas of peace, and to foster the abolition of military 
discipline. 

To keep the masses under the hypnosis of false Socialistic literature. 

To buy up all nationalised banks and to open up everywhere 
branches of German Government banks under the names and titles of 
firms that would conceal their actual standing. 

To endeavour to empoverish and temporally to weaken the peasant 
classes, to bring about national calamities such as epidemics (the 
outbreak of cholera last summer was traced to this source) , the wholesale 
burning down of villages and settlements. 

To preach the doctrine of the Socialistic form of managing 
enterprises amongst the working classes, to encourage their efforts to 
seize such enterprises, and then by means of bankruptcies to get them 
into German hands. 

To preach the idea of a six to eight hours' working day with higher 
wages. 

To crush ah 1 competition set on foot against them. All attempts 
of the intellectuals or other groups to undertake any kind of indepen- 
dent action, or to develop any industries to be unmercifully checked, 
and in doing this to stop at nothing. 

Russia to be inundated by commission agents and other German 
representatives, and a close network of agencies and offices should be 
created for the purpose of spreading amongst the masses such views 
and teachings as may at any given time be dictated from Berlin. 

The Results. 

All business became paralysed, shops were closed, Jews became 
possessors of most of the business houses, and horrible scenes of starva- 
tion became common in the country districts. The peasants put 
their children to death rather than see them starve. In a village on 
the Dvina, not far from Schlusselberg, a mother hanged three of her 
children. 

I was conducting a funeral in a mortuary of a lunatic asylum at 
Oudelnaia, near Petrograd, and saw the bodies of a mother and her 
five children whose throats had been cut by the father because he 
could not see them suffer. 

When I left Russia last October the nationalisation of women 
was regarded as an accomplished fact, though I cannot prove that 
(with the exception of at Saratoff) there was any actual proclamation 
issued. 

The cruelty of the soldiers is unspeakable. The father of one of 
the Russian clerks in the Vauxhall Motor Works was bound and laid 
on a railway line and cut to pieces by a locomotive on suspicion of 



having set fire to some of his own property. In August last two barge- 
loads of Russian officers were sunk and their bodies washed up on the 
property of a friend of mine in the Gulf of Finland, many lashed together 
in twos and threes with barbed wire. 

While we were in prison a Red Guard was sent from the central 
police station (Gorokhovaia 2) in charge of five prisoners to the fortress. 
One of them, an old officer, was unable to walk ; the guard shot him 
and left his body on the Troytsky Bridge. The murderer was repri- 
manded and imprisoned in a cell near ours. The treatment of priests 
was brutal beyond everything. Eight of them were incarcerated in 
a cell in our corridor. Some of us saw an aged man knocked down 
twice one morning for apparently no reason whatever, and they were 
employed to perform the most degrading work and made to clean out 
the filthy prison hospital. Recently life in Petrograd has become a 
veritable nightmare. 

In the early days of 1917 the Russians gloried in a bloodless revolu- 
tion, now they simply glut themselves with killing for the most trivial 
offences. In a market on the opposite side of the river to my house, 
a poor woman with a starving family filched a small piece of meat from 
a stall ; without any hesitation the Red Guard surrounded her and 
placing her against a wall shot her dead. 

The rank and file of the Red Army is full of men who are heartily 
sick of the present regime, and would gladly join any really strong 
force sent to the relief of the country. But unless the force were 
considerable, they would hesitate. 

But I imagine that the food question is the key to the situation ; 
the Red Armies must be at a low ebb for provisions, and by getting 
stores to Helsingfors they might be treated with. 

I am, &c., 

BOUSFIELD S. LOMBARD, 

. Chaplain to the Forces. 



No. 57. 

Interviews with Returned British Subjects. 

MR. A - left Petrograd in November. He stated that pro- 
duction was practically at a standstill, and in the most favourable 
cases has decreased 50 per cent. The factories are run by Committees. 
A Committee composed of Mensheviks produces a fair amount of work, 
but a Committee of Bolsheviks gives a wholly unsatisfactory output. 
The Committees were formerly elective, but the Bolsheviks now co-opt 
their own members without consulting the workpeople, and members 
who do not agree with the Bolsheviks are voted off. The Committees 
are in fact entirely political, and there is a great increase of 
bureaucracy. 

Discipline is bad, and the men are frequently one or one and a half 
hours late. The responsible members of the Committee do not under- 



70 

stand the needs of the mill, and the Bolsheviks object to paying technical 
men. 

In May, 1918, an attempt of the Committee to form their own 
organisation was rigorously suppressed. 



Mr.. B , who has lived in Russia all his life, left Moscow on the 

8th February and was interviewed at the Foreign Office on his arrival 
and supplied the following information : 

Food Conditions. 

The food conditions are getting worse and worse every day, and it 
is now practically impossible to obtain enough to eat. People are 
dying of starvation everywhere. A few months ago it was possible 
for the townspeople to buy food from the peasants down in the villages, 
but they are unable to do this now, as the peasants will not take money 
for any food that they may have to sell. Everything is done by exchange. 
Money is no use to the peasants, but clothes and instruments are valuable, 
so the exchange system is used everywhere. 

The following are the most recent prices of food : 

Moscow Roubles. 

1 Ib. of bread 16 

1 ,, potatoes . . . . . . . . 6 

1 butter 100-120 

1 lard .. 85-90 

1 ,, oil (used instead of butter) . . 45-55 

1 pint of milk . . . . . . . . 12 

1 Ib. of meat ;/i . 30-35 

1 ,, pork . . . . . . . . 65-75 

1 ,, horse meat . . . . . . 15-17 

1 dog's meat . . . . . . 5-7 

1 cat is sold f or . . . . . . . . 6 

There are three food categories in Moscow now instead of four, 
but even the " category " people cannot get all the food they are entitled 
to receive. Certainly the first category ought to receive |-Jb. bread a 
day, the second, f-lb., and the third, ^-lb. ; also about -lb. to 1 Ib. of 
fish a month, which was usually not fit for consumption ; 1J to 1^-lb. 
of oil a month (butter substitute) ; and about |-lb. soap a month. 
The above is all that could be obtained even by category people. No 
fats of any description were obtainable. Mr. B - himself sold a Ib. 
of soap for 35 roubles. 

In spite of the appalling conditions prevailing everywhere, the 
Kremlin is well supplied with all kinds of food. A servant of the 
house where Mr. B - stayed had a brother in the Kremlin, and he 
told her that there was an abundance of ham, white bread, butter, 
sausages, &c. 

Disease. 

Typhus is rampant everywhere, and is getting worse every day. 
There is also a lot of typhoid fever about ; but, worse than this, glanders 
is now spreading among the people. The Bolsheviks are afraid of this 



71 

terrible disease spreading far and wide, so they simply shoot any person 
suffering from this complaint. There are no .medicines there by which 
they can attempt to cure the people, and there is of course a great 

shortage of doctors. Mr. B thinks that there are more cases of 

glanders in Moscow than anywhere else. 

Fuel Shortage. 

The people are suffering intensely from the cold as there is practically 
no wood available. Only 3| feet of wood is allowed a month for one 
flat, and even this the people have to fetch themselves from the railway 
stations. The price of wood in the Nijni Novgorod is 200 roubles a 
fathom (official price) ; if bought from outside (in the markets, &c.) 
it is about 500 roubles. The average heat of a room is only 43 degs. 
to 45 degs. Fahrenheit. The fuel question is much worse in Petrograd 
than it is in Moscow. The reason for this is that most of the Petrograd 
houses have central heating, and when the pipes get out of order (as 
.they invariably do) there is no possibility of ever having them mended. 

Factories and Workmen. 

All the workmen are anti-Bolshevik in reality, though many of 
them have to work under the Bolsheviks in order to live. Mr. B 
gave 5 to 10 per cent, as his estimate of the number of Bolsheviks out 
of the whole population of Russia. 

The Bolsheviks pay the workmen very well, but as the cost of 
living has increased so tremendously their wages are not nearly high 
enough to enable them to live comfortably, even were the food obtainable. 
Roughly speaking, the workmen get fifteen to twenty times as much 
as they used to, and the cost of living has gone up to anything between 
300 and 1000 times as much as it was before the Revolution. 

The Bolsheviks employ very high-handed methods with the 
factories. If the workmen strike, the factory is closed, the leaders are 
generally arrested, and sometimes they are even shot. At the 
Sokolnitski works (repairing trams, &c.) in Moscow, the workmen 
went on strike because the Bolsheviks said they were not turning out 
the proper amount of work. As a result of this the factory was simply 
closed down and the following notice was put in the paper : "In 
consequence of the falling off of production in the Sokolnitski works, 
it was closed down by order of the Government." All this proves that 
the Workmen's Committees have no real power, as the Bolsheviks 
just do what they like without even consulting the Committees. 

At S , where Mr. B was working, the Bolsheviks wanted 

to inaugurate a demonstration on the 25th October, 1918. In order 
to get the men to attend the demonstration meeting the Bolsheviks 
promised a free dinner to all who went, and looked upon those who 
refused as saboteurs. This, in the end, practically amounted to forcing 
the men to join the demonstration. 

There are not many factories working in Russia now, most of them 
have had to close down on account of the fuel shortage. The few 
factories that remain only work about three days a week, but the 
workmen are paid full wages. 'Often a factory has to be closed for 
weeks at a time, owing to lack of fuel and raw material ; during this 
time the workmen are paid half wages. 



72 

Political Questions. 

The people have no interest at all in politics, the only topic of 
conversation being food. Everyone would welcome Allied intervention ; 
in fact, anything would be preferable to the Bolshevik regime. Mr. 

B does not think that many troops would be required, as the Red 

Army is of small account, and directly they got there it would go to 
pieces. In fact, the only reason why the officers stay in the army is 
because the Bolsheviks threaten to shoot their wives, mothers, or sisters 

if they desert. Mr. B has spoken to officers, the addresses of whose 

families had been taken down by the Bolsheviks for this reason. ' 

In Moscow the Menshevik paper, " Vperiod," was allowed to 
reappear for a few days, but it was soon suppressed. It then appeared 
later under the name of " Vsegda Vperiod " (" Always Forward "). 
The " Izvestiya " still attacks the Mensheviks, in spite of the so-called 
agreement which the Bolsheviks have made so much use of for 
propaganda abroad. 

General Conditions. 

To take a cab to the station costs 120 roubles, and even at this 
price it is very difficult to obtain a cab at all. 

The " terror " is not so bad as it used to be, but this is merely 
because the people's spirit is quite broken, and they do not dare to 
offer opposition. 

Education. 

Students of the high schools do not pay any fees, and any boy or 
girl of 16 years of age is allowed to enter the universities without 
showing any certificates, so that if a boy is unable to read or write he 
can still go to the university. This offer of education does not appeal 
to the working-class very much, and it is mostly the intelligentsia who 
take advantage of this opportunity. 

In spite of the Bolsheviks' so-called efforts to promote education, 
nothing is being accomplished, and things are going from bad to worse. 
They have instituted workmen's clubs where the workmen can go and 
listen to lectures, &c., but the only reason why any men attend is 
because a cup of tea and a slice of bread is usually supplied sometime 
during the lecture. In the same way, the only reason why children 
go to school is to get the breakfast that is given there. 

Journey to England. 

Mr. B - came to England with twelve other Englishmen, and 
they had to go through some very trying ordeals before getting out 
of Russia. They were packed in two cattle trucks, and it took them 
sixty-eight hours instead of twelve to get from Moscow to Petrograd. 
They had to do their own stoking and find their own fuel, &c., and they 
also had to feed the engine driver. 

During the journey one Bolshevik woman told Mr. B - that all 
the railway men ought to be shot as they were hostile to the Bolsheviks. 

Between the big stations only two trains run a day : one in the 
morning and one at night. The whole question of transport is exceed- 
ingly bad. 



73 

Mr. C , formerly with T - and Co., and then with Moscow 

branch of Anglo- Russian Commission, left Russia on the 21st January. 

Factories and Workmen. 

All factories nationalised ; only about half of them working. 
Men all anti-Bolshevik. Very discontented with conditions of life, 
and with the working of the factories. Conditions getting worse and 
worse every day. Great many of the men have gone to the country, 
as it is practically impossible to live in the towns. 

Mr. C , after leaving Anglo-Russian Commission, went to the 

factory where he used to work to seek employment, but the factory 
had been nationalised and they refused to employ him, saying he was 
a counter-revolutionary (because an Englishman). 

At one time Mr. C- - lived near cotton mill belonging to L . 

All the workmen there are against the Bolsheviks and very discontented, 
but they have to go on working for the Bolsheviks in order to live. 
Factory works about three days a week on a 6-hour day. Often have 
to stop work for a week or two because there is no fuel or no cotton 
left ; have to wait until new supply comes in. Very often about ten 
factories combine and work under a common directorship : this is done 
in order that one factory may exchange with another whatever is wanted. 
If one of these factories is closed down, the village members of the 
other factories are discharged, and the men from the old factory employed 
in their places. 

In Petrograd more attempts to strike than in Moscow ; this is 
because in Moscow the workmen are more under the power of the 
Government, and they do not dare to strike. Even if they did there is 
nothing to gain by it, for the Government would simply stop their 
wages, discharge a good many, and probably Cancel their bread cards. 

Moscow. 

In Moscow all shops are closed, with the exception of Soviet shops. 
All hotels taken up long ago by Red Guard detachments, &c. Nothing 
can be purchased from the shops without a ticket or order, and this 
ticket can only be obtained by a Soviet worker, and even he has to go 
from one place to another before the ticket is legal. First he has to 
get a ticket from his factory, then he has to go to his trade union, and 
so on, before he is entitled to buy anything. An ordinary man is 
unable to purchase anything. 

Fur coats, which had been requisitioned by the Soviet, were sold 
at the Soviet shops for, say, two, three or four hundred roubles. The 
next day the same fur coats were sold down in the thieves' market for 
about 7,000 roubles. 

Mr. C - sold a very old suit (privately, as public selling is for- 
bidden), for which he got 600 roubles. 

Services are not held in the church because there is no fuel to heat 
the building. As there are only a few people left to attend services, 
the priest holds them in his own house. 

When Red Guards are sent from Moscow to the front there is 
often a row at the station, and guns are taken from them. When they 
eventually arrive at front, often only half of original number present, 
the rest having escaped. The Red Guards are quite content to receive 
good pay, &c., but they are not anxious to fight. 



74 

Theatres still running very well. Actors are greatly privileged, 
being placed in first category, &c. 

Bookshops distribute literature free in the villages, and in Moscow 
it is sold very cheap. No tickets required for books. 

Between 50 and 100 Englishmen left in Moscow. 



Mr. D , who has been in Russia for three or four years, left 

Moscow on the 21st January. 

Mr. D - was giving private lessons all the time he was in Russia, 
but during the last month or so he went as a teacher of French to one 
of the lower grade schools in Moscow. The reason for this was that 
he found it practically impossible to live on the fourth category, and 
by going to a school he was transferred to the third category. 

Discipline in the school very bad indeed. The only reason why 
children or teachers went to school at all was in order to get the food 
supplied there. 

Food Conditions were very bad indeed. No provision shops open 
in Moscow. The people are all anti-Bolshevik at heart, but they have 
to work for the Bolsheviks in order to live. 

Typhus is rampant, and many people are suffering from skin 
diseases (Mr. D - himself experienced this) caused from the want 
of fats. 

Only a few trams and trains running, and the former often have to 
stop for a day or two on account of disputes and strikes. 

The fuel question is very serious, and it is becoming more and more 
acute every day. Some friends of Mr. D - had no means of cooking 
the little food they had, as they had no benzine, no kerosene, and no 
wood. People often have to cut up chairs, tables, &c., for firewood. 

Moscow is a dead city. 'Very few trams running, many shops 
boarded up, all shop-signs removed. The whole place looks deserted. 

The houses are all in bad condition, &c. But, in Mr. D 's opinion, 

the streets of Moscow are much safer now than they were a year ago. 
There is no street robbery, and the only danger now is being arrested 
in the street. 

Mr. D thinks there are still about sixty or seventy English 

people left in Moscow. 

Bolshevik literature impresses the people to some extent, but they 
don't want to believe it. 

The people are waiting and hoping for some sort of intervention 
from England. The present position is intolerable, and practically 
anything would be preferable to the Bolshevik rule. 



Mr. E , secretary of a bank, left Russia on the 24th January. 

He was interviewed at the Foreign Office on the 21st February, and 
supplied the following information : 

Economic Conditions. 

It is impossible to live in Petrograd, as the prices are outrageous. 
There are only two categories now, the 1st and 2nd. The 1st category 
consists of people working in the different Bolshevik works and organisa- 
tions ; physical workers, their wives, and their children (up to 12 
years of age) . The 2nd category consists of all those who either support 



75 

themselves by their own labour (either mental or physical), and do not 
live by interest on accrued capital, or who do not use the fruits of other 
people's labour. The Red Guards are always considered first, and 
practically form a category of their own, which is higher than either 
the 1st or 2nd. Officially, the 1st category ought to receive 1-lb. of 
bread a day, and the 2nd j-lb., but in reality the amount varies from 
day to day, according to the supplies. The 3rd and 4th categories 
have been done away with altogether ; consequently, there are a great 
many people who are in no category at all. The Bolsheviks published 
statistics showing that the 4th category was not necessary, as there 
were so few members. This proves that the 4th category people have 
either been exterminated or have been forced to work under the 
Bolsheviks in order to live. Three months ago, a decree was issued 
saying that all those about to enter the 1st category must produce a 
certificate from their trade organisation. As a result of this decree, 
practically all the men joined a trade organisation, and, as every trade 
organisation is controlled by the Bolsheviks, the Bolsheviks in this 
way got more men under their power. 

The " category " people can only go to municipal shops (as a 
matter of fact, all other shops are closed). The latest prices of goods 
in Petrograd were : bread 1 r. 50 c. a Ib. at a municipal shop, but 
20 roubles a Ib. if bought outside (from Red Guards, sackmen, &c.) ; 
butter 75 roubles a Ib. if bought outside no fats of any description 
sold at municipal shops ; sugar, which was only available about once 
a month, 1 r. 50 c. a Ib. at municipal shops, and otherwise 80 roubles. 
Meat was sometimes obtainable at the market ; as a matter of fact, 
it was supposed to be sold by card system, but it was generally sold 
in an underhand manner at the market. Beef 23 roubles a Ib. ; veal 
26 roubles ; pork 45 roubles. Meat was also obtainable from the 
sackmen. The Bolsheviks try to stop these sackmen, who go from 
house to house selling food. 

The category people do not get their supplies regularly, or the full 
amount they are entitled to. The Supply Committee publishes in 
the paper from day to day what food is available, and what each 
category is allotted. 

Financial Situation. 

It is very difficult to draw any large amount of money out of a 
bank. The Bolsheviks allow 1,000 roubles a month to be taken out 
from an account, but even this has become more difficult lately, as 
they have just issued a decree that a man must get either his House 
Committee or some other Bolshevik organisation to state that he is 
really in need of money. But by means of bribery, men draw out 
hundreds of thousands of roubles. All the banks have been nationalised, 
and now they are centralised. A decree was published a little while 
ago saying that, if a man had an account in three or four banks, he 
must choose one bank, and put all his money into that. If this decree 
was not obeyed, the Bolsheviks simply took all his money away. By 
this means the Bolsheviks can tell exactly how much money each 
man has. 

If a new account was opened on the 1st January, 1918, the depositor 
was allowed, in principle, to draw out his money freely ; but in practice 
this was not so. When the banks were nationalised new money could 



76 

be taken out as desired (again only in principle). But when, about 
six weeks ago, the new decree about centralising all accounts was 
published, the position of affairs was altered. For example, if a man 
had 5,000 roubles in his new account, and 100,000 roubles in his .old 
account, he could transfer his old account to his new account, so 
making 105,000 roubles in all. But, according to this decree, he was 
only allowed to draw to the amount of 5,000 roubles, as the old account 
wa sconsidered " barred." For transferring an account from one bank 
to another the commissars charged 25 per cent. 

Factories. 

There are frequent strikes in factories, which often have to be 
put down by force. About six weeks ago there was a strike in the 
Putilov Works. Trotski in a speech made a definite threat to use force 
if the men did not go back. As a result of this the strike was settled 
with only a few arrests taking place. 

About two months ago there was an election for the Workmen's 
Committee in the Putilov Works, and this resulted in a majority for 
the Social Revolutionaries. The Bolsheviks would not consent to 
this, and there had to be another election. This shows that, in spite 
of the Workmen's Committees, the Bolsheviks are really in control. 
If the workmen get too independent, the Government simply closes 
the factory down ; and if the Committee is troublesome the same 
thing happens, unless a new Committee is appointed. All members 
of the Committee have to be Communists, or in sympathy with the 
Communists. Often a factory has to close down for lack of fuel or 
certain machinery, but the men who are thus thrown out of work are 
given an unemployment allowance. 

House Committees. 

Mr. E - was a member of his House Committee in order to get 
put into the second category. The chief duties of the House Committee 
are to see that the different decrees of the Bolsheviks are carried out. 
If these are not carried out the Committee is held responsible, and is 
either fined or imprisoned. The Committee is forced to buy one news- 
paper a day in order to follow the decrees, as the Bolsheviks only 
publish their decrees in the newspaper. By this means practically 
everyone has to read the papers, and as only Bolshevik papers are 
allowed to be published their propaganda is seen by everyone. 

General Conditions. 

All the streets are deserted, and there is no life at all. The 
Nevski is practically empty, and most of the shops are shut. But 
perfect order reigns in the streets ; there is no looting or robbery. 

There are hardly any executions now. This is due to the fact 
that the people's spirit has been broken, and that they now offer no 
opposition. 

All restaurants are closed, with the exception of municipal 
restaurants and cafes. In an ordinary cafe a cup of tea, without 
milk or sugar, costs 1 rouble, and coffee, 3 r. 50 c. 

Services still continue to be held in the churches, and on the whole 
they are well attended. The congregation is chiefly composed of 
women, but on the Russian New Year's Eve there were many men 
there. The priests, who used to be in the fourth category, are now 
in no category at all. 



77 
Intervention. 

In Mr. E 's opinion Allied intervention would be very welcome. 
He thinks 50,000 troops would be ample, and that the Bolsheviks 
would not be able to rouse any opposition against us. In fact, the Red 
Guard officers would be among the first to join our ranks. Everybody 
is hoping and praying that the Allies will intervene, and they would 
be welcomed with open arms everywhere. 

Finland. 

Russians crossing the border from Russia into Finland are now, 
in the majority of cases, sent back to Russia again, unless they have 
some very strong influence in Finland itself. 



Mr. F -, who has returned from Vladimir, states that he had 

his factory going right up to the day of his departure from M - on 
the 6th February. 

Before the revolution the output was : 

1,100 poods (roughly 400 cwt.) yarn daily. 

800 pieces cloth. 
The latest figures were for January, 1919 : 

550 poods (roughly 200 cwt.) yarn daily. 
500 pieces cloth. 

Out of 6,500 workmen there were not 200 convinced Bolsheviks. 
The majority were kept in order by pure terrorism, of which there 

were many examples within a radius of 40 versts of M . When 

peasants refused to supply grain and cattle, and rose to protect their 
property, a Bolshevik force soon appeared in the neighbourhood, and 
if any resistance was offered, the whole village was wiped out. Usually, 
the peasants gave in at the first shot, a number of ringleaders would 
then be shot on the spot, and a number would be taken off to Moscow 
to prison. 

Epidemic. 

Typhus is rapidly spreading in the country and the capitals. 
The average number of cases taken off trains arriving at the Kasan 
Station, Moscow, is twenty per train. At the Kursk Station in Moscow, 
typhus cases lie about the waiting halls. The hospitals are so full 
that patients are left in the corridor. 

Sanitary Conditions. 

In places where people congregate, such as railway stations, 
market places, &c., the sanitary conditions are terrible. With the 
thawing of the snow the epidemic, which has reached enormous pro- 
portions during the winter frosts, will naturally increase in violence. 

Traffic. 

The Kazan railway runs one passenger train each way to Kazan. 
This railway used to bring 40 per cent, of the food into Moscow. It 
now runs an average of three goods trains each way per day. 

Red Army. 

No one wants to join the Red Army now except the worst elements 
of the people. If a conscript deserts in the town where he joins, his 
parents or wife are treated with extreme brutality, sometimes being 



78 

shot. But desertion often takes place while troops are going to the 
" front." Under these latter circumstances, the Bolsheviks are unable 
to trace their relations, so they are not touched. 

Mr. F considers one of the inducements to fight is that, if 

the Red Army breaks through the enemy, it usually finds large stores 
of food. 



No. 58. 

The Progress of Bolshevism in Russia. 



Memorandum by Mr. B . 

The Russian Government. There has now been time for consider- 
able organisation of the Bolshevik Government. Russia has been 
divided into four Federal Republics : 

(1.) Commune of the North. 

(2.) Commune of the West. 

(3.) Central Commune. 

(4.) Commune of the Volga. 

The first is composed of the Governments of Petrograd, Archangel, 
Viatka, Vologda, part of the Government of Pskov, Novgorod, 
Tcherepovetz and Olonetz. 

The second comprises the Governments of Vitebsk, Smolensk, 
and Pskov. 

The third the Governments of Moscow, Orel, Kursk, Tula, Tver, 
Nij ni-Novgorod, Voronij . 

The fourth those of Kazan, Simbirsk, Saratov and Perm. 

Each town is provided with its Council of Deputies and its Com- 
mission for fighting counter-revolution, sabotage, and speculation. 
Each district besides has its Council of Deputies (Sovdep) and its 
Extraordinary Commission. These institutions direct all local affairs, 
but they are all subject to the authority of the Central Executive 
Committee, which sits at Moscow. The pan-Russian Extraordinary 
Commission against counter-revolution, &c., also sits at Moscow. 
The members of these bodies are supposed to be elected by the 
pan-Russian Congress of Workmen, Peasants, Red Guards, Sailors, 
and Cossack Deputies ; foreign affairs are under the exclusive manage- 
ment of George Tchitcherine. The Central Committee is composed 
as follows : 

Lenin . . . . President. 

Trotski . . . . Military and Naval Commissary. 

Chicherin . . Foreign Affairs. 

Schmidt . . Commissary of Labour. 

Pokrovski ' . . Interior (ex-Professor of History at Moscow). 

Lunacharski . . Education. 

Nevski . . . . Commissary of Roads and Communications. 
A former engineer at the Ministry. 

Ulianova . . Lenin's wife, social assistant. 

Stoutchka . . Justice. Formerly a Deputy of the Petro- 
grad Tribunal. 

Tsiuroupa . . Minister of Food. 

Bonch-Brouevich Business Manager. 



79 

The Red Army. On the 25th October, 1918, the Bolshevik troops 
of Petrograd and the neighbourhood numbered hardly more than two 
divisions. Regimental committees have been abolished throughout 
the Army, and the power was transferred to military commissaries, 
who were charged with attending to the political moral. The 
Bolsheviks have neglected no means for increasing the number of their 
troops. Disabled soldiers of the old Army released from Germany are 
concentrated on their arrival either at Petrograd or Moscow and 
quartered with soldiers of the Red Guard. They are left without 
clothing, with insufficient rations, and without medical attendance, 
while the Red Guard with whom they are mingled, is well fed, clothed, 
and amply supplied with money. When they complain the answer is : 
" Enrol in the Red Guard." Refractory cases are cruelly treated. At 
the head of the Red Guard is a former colonel of the staff, a Lett named 
Vatatis. Each soldier receives 300 to 500 roubles a month, equipment, 
food on a higher scale than all the other categories, and a promise to 
support his family in the event of death ; but, in spite of their privileged 
situation, the Red Guard have not the confidence of the Government, 
and, as intercepted letters show, many of them are disaffected. The 
real reliance of the Government is placed in the " International Battah'ons 
of the Army," which are formed of Letts and Chinese, who are used as 
punitive companies both in the Army and in the interior. Theoretically, 
the International Battalions are on an equality with the Red Guard, 
but actually they are far better paid, and they can count on absolute 
immunity for the excesses they commit against the wretched civil 
population which is left at their mercy. There is compulsory military 
instruction in the towns for all men between 17 and 40, in the form of 
drills twice a week. While its cohesion lasts, the Bolshevik Army is an 
incontestable force. 

The Terror. All assemblies except those organised by the 
Bolsheviks are forbidden in the towns. Anti-Bolshevik meetings are 
dispersed by armed force and their organisers shot. No Press exists 
except the Bolshevik Press. The Bolsheviks organise Sunday reunions, 
in which such subjects as, " Should one enrol in the Red Guards ? " ; 
' Who will give us our daily bread ? " ; " The world revolution," &c., 
are debated. 

So effective is the Terror that no one dares to engage in anti- 
Bolshevik propaganda. People have been arrested for a simple 
telephonic conversation, in which the terms seemed ambiguous or could 
be interpreted as adverse to the Bolsheviks. An arrest is the prelude 
to every kind of corruption ; the rich have to pay huge exactions to 
intermediaries, who are usually Jews, before they can obtain their 
release. 

Latterly " mass arrests " have come into fashion. It was thought 
at first that these were ordered by the Extraordinary Commission 
against counter-revolution, but it is now known that they are ordered 
by a special Revolutionary Committee called for short " The Three," 
because it consists of three members. This committee is independent 
of the Extraordinary Commission and is controlled only by the Commis- 
sary of War. Persons arrested by its orders have never been seen again. 

The proceedings of this committee are kept secret ; its very 
composition is unknown to the public. 



80 

It has already been mentioned that the Red Guard is disaffected. 
A letter from a sailor named Borzov, written on the eve of going to the 
front, says, " The authorities seem to think that we are going to support 
the interest of the Soviets, but they are greatly mistaken. All the 
sailors are otherwise inclined. . . . many of them go simply to avoid 
hunger. ... I think there will be an end to all this very soon ; the 
Allies will overpower us." Another letter from Petrograd says, " We 
hear that Petrograd, before any other Russian town, will be in touch 
with Europe, but in the meantime half the inhabitants there are dying 
from hunger and typhoid fever." These letters and others were sent by 
the Russian Censor to the Extraordinary Commission for fighting the 
counter-revolution, and no doubt the writers have already been dealt 
with in the usual way. 

There is, of course, in Russia a public opinion quite outside the 
Bolsheviks an opinion which longs ardently for any kind of intervention 
Allied or German which will put an end to the present state of 
anarchy. So far it has expressed itself only in half-hearted insurrections, 
as for example that of Yaroslav and the assassination of Mirbach, &c. 
Nevertheless, in spite of the apparent stability of the Bolshevik 
Government, in spite of the ineptitude of its opponents, there are signs 
that the Terrorist Oligarchy is tottering. It is indeed impossible to 
believe that a Government, financially bankrupt and unable to feed its 
population, can survive for very long, however drastically it attempts 
to govern by terror. A neutral in Petrograd said recently that hatred 
towards the Government and everybody connected with it is spreading 
among all classes of the population, including peasants and the working 
men. The end will probably come quite suddenly as it did in the 
French Terror. 

The anti-Bolshevik parties are considering all sorts of devices for 
discrediting the Bolsheviks. One is to flood the country with false 
currency, in order to throw discredit on the Soviets ; another, to seize 
the printing office, where bank notes are produced, at Petrograd ; 
another, to obtain employment in Government offices for the purpose 
of furnishing information to their Party, which is being conducted by 
Boris Asvinkof. Even the working class of the two capitals is divided 
and there is a considerable anti-Bolshevik party. The general opinion 
of the educated classes is that a force of half a million would suffice 
to overthrow the Bolsheviks with very few losses. 

Bolshevik Administration. One is startled from time to time by 
hearing that some well-known man of education has joined the 
Bolsheviks, such for instance as Maxim Gorki and the famous singer 
Chaliapin. The fact is that there are many specious things in the 
Bolshevik creed designed to capture persons of all shades of opinion. 
It is not usually with the principles of a system of Government that 
fault can be found, but in the application of the principles, and when 
these are applied by ruffians, such as the Terrorists of the French and 
the Russian Revolutions, the principles fall into ruin. Rose-coloured 
accounts of the Bolshevik regime are written by persons who have only 
the principles to go by. Take, for example, the housing question. 
Some families have more rooms than they can live in, others have to 
live in one room, others again have no room at all. The Bolshevik 
Government commandeers a large house and lets it to indigent persons, 
so that all have equal housing accommodation. The house is managed 



81 

by a committee and the only person who dislikes the arrangement is the 
owner of the house. The rationing is another instance. There are 
four categories. No. 1 entitles those engaged in heavy manual work to 
f Ib. of bread and five herrings a day, and No. 4, the lowest in the scale, 
giving in fact the right to | Ib. of bread per diem, is prescribed for those 
who employ other people. No. 4 is a very cogent weapon for persuading 
people to enlist in the Red Guard or other unpopular occupation. 

National economy is managed by a Superior Council sitting 
at Moscow, which nominally administers the industry, exports and 
imports for the whole country, but, in practice, all industry and 
commerce being paralysed, it has very little to do. There is food 
administration in each district, partly under the control of the Food 
Commissariat and partly under the Council of National Economy. 
Expeditionary corps, composed of Volunteers and Red Guards, are used 
to requisition corn from the peasants, who will not give it willingly 
because the price is fixed at a lower rate than the cost of production. 
These expeditionary corps carry away all the food on which they can 
lay their hands, leaving the peasants what is strictly necessary ; it 
is in fact a kind of organised brigandage. Corps of the same kind exist 
in the mills and factories with not less than 1,000 employees. They 
requisition the food necessary for the maintenance of themselves and 
the factory hands. 

Much is made among the Bolshevik sympathisers in England of 
the Bolshevik system of public education, but it is easy to acquire 
merit for any educational system in a country where there was 
practically no elementary education before the revolution. It is also 
true that the opera and the theatres are kept running but I am assured 
that the opera performed to an empty house until the Government gave 
orders that it was to be filled. Such methods of window dressing are 
not unknown in other countries. 

The following is a list of prices for foodstuffs and clothing current 
on the 15th of December : 

Roubles. 

Potatoes (mostly rotten) . . . . 10 per Ib. 

Salt fish (bad condition) . . . . 9-10 ,, 

Bread (by card, scarce) . . . . 1 ,, 

Bread (in open market) . . . . 18-20 ,, 

Pork (scarce) . . . . . . 50 ,, 

Beef (scarce) 22-23 

Sugar (scarce) . . . . . . 80 ,, 

Tea (scarce) . . . . . . 100 ,, 

Coffee (none to be had at any price) 

Butter (salted) 75 ,, 

Butter (unsalted) 80 

(The Russian Ib. is 2 oz. lighter than our Ib.) 

Suit of clothes (very ordinary) . . 800-900 
Shoes (poor quality) . . . . 400 

Cotton (only by card) (for a piece 

26-in. square) . . . . . . 15-16 

Other reports show that Bolshevism is still a potent force in Siberia 
and that Bolsheviks are in close touch with those in European Russia. 
(1057) G 



82 

' In destroying the fabric of society the Bolsheviks appear to be 
adopting the methods of " skyscrapers " in New York, which is to dig 
out everything to a depth of 300 ft. in order to erect a new and stable 
edifice. They have said more than once that unless they can by propa- 
ganda induce a sympathetic revolution in other countries their fate 
must be sealed ; and the fever of propaganda which now possesses 
them is really a measure of self-preservation. 

It is now reported that they are abandoning propaganda by leaflets 
in favour of personal and secret propaganda. 



Xo. 59. 
The Progress of Bolshevism Abroad. 



Memorandum by Mr. B . 

FROM a report recently received from a former Russian statesman, 
it certainly appears that Bolshevism is dying at its roots. He says 
that the split between the Lenin and Trotsky group has become 
menacing. The few idealists that still remain among the Bolsheviks 
are seeing their ideas falling to pieces one after another, while a world 
revolution is still hanging fire. The leaders, who have full details of 
the position of Bolshevism both in Russia and abroad, clearly foresee 
their downfall, and admit their discouragement in private conversation 
with their friends. The " middle " Bolsheviks, i.e., the Commissars, 
Soviet staff, and officers of the Red Army, knowing nothing of the 
progress of events except what they read in the Bolshevik press, are 
less dismayed. They still believe in the eventual victory of Bolshevism 
in Germany, and are looking forward to disturbances in England, but 
many of them are already looking out for hiding places, and it is believed 
that they will desert the Bolsheviks as soon as there is another revolution. 

The minor Bolsheviks, Communist workmen, &c., are not concerned 
with politics at all. Their sole preoccupation is the question of food. 
Those who are living at the Smolny seem to be convinced of the early 
downfall of the Soviet Government, owing to disorganisation in the 
Red Army-, revolts in the villages, and famine. Many of them are 
returning to their homes and throwing off the mask of Bolshevism. 
The mass of the townspeople are terrorized and incapable of any 
independent action. 

Under-feeding is having its effect, and the epidemics of typhus, 
small-pox, and influenza are spreading rapidly. In the Obukhov 
hospital, during December, the mortality amounted to 14,000. During 
that month the population of Petrograd fell by 105,000. Next to disease 
and famine, the absence of fuel is the worst scourge. All this presses 
terribly upon the prisoners, who are now thrust eight into a cell intended 
for one person, and fed upon putrid herrings and soup made from 
potato peel. Typhoid, small-pox, and influenza cases are left in the 
same cell with uninfected persons, and in the quarantine cells eight to 
ten patients lie together. 

There is complete disorganisation of transport. The Bolsheviks 
are doing all they can to postpone the day of complete breakdown by 
giving superior diet to the railway workers, who are very discontented. 



83 

The Red Army continues to hold together, but its moral is said to 
have declined. The moral of the fleet is in a dangerous state. Many 
of the sailors have amassed a fortune during the past year, and they 
believe that they can only retain it by bringing in a bourgeois Govern- 
ment. They are now not only discontented, but anti-Bolshevik. In 
the beginning of January .they demanded the removal of commissars 
from the ships, which was done. An attempt made by the Government 
to send the sailors to the front was disastrous. They refused to go, 
and refused to be disarmed. The relations between the sailors and 
officers have lately improved, and the Bolshevik leaders are aware of 
the danger of having in the very centre of Petrograd a compact armed 
force hostile to them. All that the sailors need for taking action is a 
leader. 

There is no Labour question in Petrograd because there are no 
capitalists, no trade, and no industry. The workmen, who used to 
number hundreds of thousands, may now be counted in thousands. 
Many of them have taken service under the Bolsheviks, and are employed 
in various commissariats and committees. Large numbers have drifted 
away into the country. On the whole, those who remain are against 
the Bolsheviks. They contiol the water supply, the electric fire stations, 
the tramways, and arsenal. They appear to entertain no ill-feeling 
towards the bourgeoisie, but, on the other hand, they are quite inarticulate 
as to the form of Government they would prefer. 

At the Putilov Works anti-Semitism is growing, probably because 
the food supply committees are entirely in the hands of Jews and voices 
can be heard sometimes calling for a " pogrom." 

In the railway workshops the men are split into two parties 
Bolshevik and anti-Bolshevik. The Government is carrying on a 
feverish propaganda among them, but without much effect. The 
womenfolk are specially counter-revolutionary, probably because they 
feel the want of food more severely. The workmen are generally 
opposed to the Red Army and against war of any kind. 

The food supply, in which there was a temporary improvement 
during January, has again become hopeless. In Petrograd there is 
no reserve of food. 

The peasants in the Northern governments are generally anti- 
Bolshevik, but the feeling varies in the different governments, and is 
most hostile where requisitions have been made. The " Committees 
of the Poor " are avoided by respectable peasants. Members of those 
committees numbering sometimes 20 per cent, of the population 
do no work and live at the expense of the local peasants by requisition. 
This led to revolts in January in several districts. Nearly all the 
peasants are armed, some even having machine guns and a supply of 
cartridges. They have ceased to take the slightest interest in politics. 
What they need is cloth and iron, as well as food. 

The most interesting feature in the report is the statement that, 
both in the towns and villages, there is a reawakening of religion. 
At Kolpin the churches are overcrowded ; the propaganda of Ivan 
Chirikov is meeting with success ; Pashkovtsev's sect is growing, and 
new sects are appearing. In the villages also the priests are no longer 
molested and are beginning to reopen the churches. 



84 

At the International Communist Conference at Moscow, according 
to the Russian wireless, Kamenev declared for the doctrines of Karl 
Marx and a proletarian dictatorship. Lenin spoke hopefully of the 
victory of the Social Revolution being secured. " In spite," he said, 
" of all the obstacles and the number of victims who may suffer in the 
progress of the cause, we may live to see- a universal Republic of 
Soviets." There was to be a review of the Red Army for the edification 
of the foreign delegates. 

The Red Army is flooded with propaganda literature, and Trotsky 
is conducting a series of mass meetings. The propaganda trains are 
decorated fantastically in order to make an impression on the soldiers. 
Trotsky's present theme is the coming of the Socialistic State. Stoppage 
of work in factories is almost universal, not only from the lack of fuel, 
but from strikes. 

The Russian wireless has issued a statement that the Government, 
although not recognising the Berne Conference as representative of the 
working classes, will allow the Commission to travel through Russia, 
just as they would allow any bourgeois Commission to do the same, 
but they enquire whether the Governments of the various countries' 
representatives will allow a Bolshevik Commission to inspect their 
countries. 

A man named J , who has arrived in Norway from Russia, 

states that he was employed as engineer at a printing works. In the 
spring of 1918 the press was taken over by the Soviet Government, 
and was employed in printing propaganda in many languages " Every 
language," he says, " except Russian." Most of the matter printed 
was in German, but there was a good deal of English, too, as well as 
leaflets in Asiatic languages, for which purpose type was purchased 
in India. He specially remembered Sanscrit and Hindustani. 

The efforts of the Bolsheviks to corrupt the Allied soldiers at 
Archangel are reported to be futile. Specimens of the literature dropped 
by Bolshevik aeroplanes comprised English translations of manifestoes 
by Lenin and Petrov, a man who was charged in connection with the 
Houndsditch murders. 

There are many reports about the printing of forged notes for the 
various Allied countries, and the 1 note is reported to be forged in 
enormous quantities. The only forged notes now being circulated 
in this country are very crude, and are quite unworthy of the style 
of note printing for which the Russians used to be famous. Most of 
the forgery has been badly executed by hand on inferior paper. 



No. 60. 

Appreciation of the Economic Situation, Compiled from Statistics 
in the Possession of His Majesty's Government. 



1. BOLSHEVIK FINANCIAL METHODS AND BOLSHEVIK 

CURRENCY. 

(a) General. We see throughout the area controlled by the 
Bolshevik Autocracy a destruction of the industrial and commercial 
system which has been based on the models of Western civilisation. 



85 

Bona fide commerce and industry is at a standstill, necessities 
of life are scarce and obtainable only at exorbitant prices, expressed 
in terms of a depreciated currency issued without regard to sound 
principles of finance. 

The peasants employed in agriculture and thus controlling the 
essential products of the soil are less imbued with Bolshevism than the 
factory hands and town dwellers. They will not sell their supplies 
for a depreciated currency, but part with them only in exchange for 
the necessary products of those trades and industries, mainly centred 
in the towns, which Bolshevism has paralysed or destroyed. 

There can be no two opinions as to the fact that the basis of national 
and international trade and industry is vitally bound up with the 
banking system. If, therefore, the situation created by the nationali- 
sation of all Russian banks is examined, it will go far to show that the 
assertion freely made that the banking system has completely broken 
down is perfectly justifiable, and further that, this being so, trade 
and industry in the accepted sense, when they are not at a standstill, 
are at any rate not being conducted on an economically sound basis. 
The paralysing effect which Bolshevik decrees have had upon trade 
and industry may be thus illustrated. 

(b) The Nationalisation of Bank Balances. In effect, this is a 
provision by which all current accounts become governmentally 
controlled. Permits to draw on such accounts are granted up to 
1,000 roubles per month, without any regard to the amount standing 
to the credit balance of such accounts. As a result, no individual 
commercial house, shop or business of any kind, which is not controlled 
by a duly authorized Bolshevik committee, has a credit value of more 
than 1,000 roubles per month. If it be taken into consideration that 
the life of any such Bolshevik committee is very precarious and depends 
to a great extent on the number of bayonets supporting it, it will be 
clearly understood that the ordinary system of trade and industrial 
credits has ceased to exist. 

All securities, including Government stocks, Treasury bills, bank, 
trading, and industrial stocks and shares have been nationalised. After 
a rough and ready valuation, holders of such securities are credited 
with a cash balance, subject, of course, to the embargo mentioned. 

A few comments are illuminating evidence of Bolshevik failure : 
The " People's " Bank can hardly claim any depositors, despite 
the fact that the last banking institution (Moscow Narodni Bank) 
which remained outside the nationalisation decree was taken under 
Government control about two months ago. In other words, the 
" People's " Bank, the only remaining bank, inspires no confidence. 
This lack of confidence arises from several different causes. Among 
them may be numbered the absolute insecurity arising out of the 
wholesale corruption prevalent throughout the Bolshevik administration, 
and particularly in the bank administration. 

The malversation of incredibly large sums of money is of daily 
occurrence. Other causes are the insufficiency and incompetence of 
the bank staffs. In fact, the interest of 3 per cent, payable on all bank 
balances is hardly ever credited. It is no exaggeration to state that 
under the Bolshevik financial regulations there has been a complete 
breakdown of the credit system. The cheque has fallen into disuse. 



86 

There are no longer any securities to enable a trade or an industry 
to obtain credit, and loans cannot be raised. 

It may be well asserted that, with production ever on the decrease 
(in some industries it has fallen to 5 per cent, of the normal) and con- 
sumption on a starvation basis (e.g., the population of Petrograd, 
owing mainly to emigration consequent on unemployment and disease, 
has dwindled from 2J millions to about 650,000 to 700,000), the economic 
system in Russia under Bolshevik influence has had the disastrous results 
of completely paralysing the trade and industry of the country. 

A conclusive proof of Bolshevik economic bankruptcy is afforded 
by their latest budget statement for 1919, which runs as follows, in 
round figures : 

Expenditure. 
28 milliards of roubles. 

Revenue. 
Deficit to be covered by fresh issues of 

paper currency . . . . 16 milliards of roubles. 

Taxes . . . . . . . . 2 ,, ,, 

Contributions from the " Bourgeois 

classes " . . . . . . 10 ,, ,, 

Total 28 



' (c.) Ukraine. The first Bolshevik invasion of the Ukraine destroyed, 
as it did in Northern Russia, the existing trade and industrial life of 
the country. It failed, as it has done in Northern Russia, to construct 
trade and industry on a new basis. The occupation by Germany of 
the Ukraine reimposed the old order of things. However much the 
economic life of the Ukraine must have suffered from these two violent 
and rapid changes, as an illustration of the confidence restored by the 
overthrow of Bolshevism, even by a foreign enemy, the reopening of 
the private banks at Kiev under their old management may be quoted. 
Hundreds of would-be depositors of millions of roubles besieged these 
banks for days in succession. It is indeed a justifiable presumption 
that should the Bolsheviks again make themselves masters of the 
Ukraine, with the greater experience they have acquired since their 
first inroad into that country, their demolition of trade and industry 
will be more thorough than on the former occasion. Here as elsewhere 
under the Bolshevik rule, there will then be the same absence of security 
for capital and industry and the almost equal lack of security for life 
itself. 

(d.) Notes on Bolshevik currency. The following observations 
with regard to the Bolshevik currency situation are of interest : 

(1.) The Bolshevik Government have lost large amounts of 

bullion, and have no possibility of attaining any fresh 

cover to their paper issue. 
(2.) An issue of two milliards of paper monthly still continues. 

(3.) It appears that the Bolshevik Government have never dared 
to issue paper money of their own, having relied on 
fresh issues of Kerensky money, which is still accepted 
by the people, and probably on illicit issues of, ostensibly, 
Czar roubles. 



In the event of the people ceasing to accept the present paper 
currency, and of no organisation of barter being established in its 
place, disaster must finally overtake the Bolshevik regime. 

2. BOLSHEVIK RELATIONS WITH THE ZEMSTVOS. 

The nearest English equivalents to the Zemstvos are the Rural 
District Councils and the Local Government Board. 

They have proved of the greatest assistance during the war,. 
Without the Union of Zemstvos it is doubtful if the Quartermaster 
General's department of the Russian army could have coped with the 
situation, as they undertook practically the whole of the food organisa- 
tion. It is stated that the late Czar credited them with political 
intrigue, and wished to disband them, but this was vigorously resisted 
by the Grand Duke Nicholas, then Commander-in-Chief of the Russian 
army. Under Kerensky the Zemstvos were reorganised and their 
power amplified. It was projected that they should form the electoral 
machinery for the Constituent Assembly, but this scheme was not 
in full working order at the time the Bolsheviks seized power. The 
Bolsheviks, realising that they had to deal with a body practically 
controlling the agricultural supplies of the country, were very careful 
in their attitude at first. The Bolsheviks attacked the members of 
the Zemstvos on the ground that individually they were counter- 
revolutionary, but went no further until, with increasing power, they 
felt strong enough to assail the executive branches and finally the 
whole system. Their purpose was two-fold : 

(1.) To destroy the machinery for the election of a Constituent 
Assembly. 

(2.) To obtain complete domination over the peasantry, and 
consequently the handling of rural produce. 

Domination of the peasantry they have never really obtained, 
but they sowed distrust against the Zemstvos by suggesting that these 
bodies were retarding the distribution of the land. The destruction 
of the authority of the Zemstvos was not replaced by confidence in 
the Bolsheviks. The peasants refused to place their produce on the 
markets as it was so often sequestrated. They demanded clothing, 
agricultural machinery and household goods, and refused the paper 
money which was of no use to them. The vicious circle was established 
of complaint by the workpeople that the peasants would not supply 
food, and on the peasants' side that the workpeople would not supply 
the implements necessary for their toil. Result chaos and famine. 

3. BOLSHEVIK RELATIONS WITH CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES. 

These are closely allied to the Zemstvos, but have no adminis- 
trative functions. The Bolsheviks were very chary of interference 
with these bodies in the earlier stage, recognising that they were the 
embodiment of one branch of socialist thought. The Co-operative 
Societies were, and are, a body of considerable power representing 
the financial interests of a large proportion of the peasant population. 
The " People's " Bank in Moscow, which was practically owned by 
the Co-operatives, was for a time allowed almost unrestricted freedom 
of action. 



A very large percentage of Russian raw material passes through 
the hands of the Co-operatives, and the Bolsheviks realise that resump- 
tion of trade relationship with other countries is in no small way 
dependent on this functioning of the Co-operatives. These latter 
have stoutly defended their rights, and many collisions have occurred 
in the attempts of the Bolsheviks to sequestrate money and goods 
belonging to them. 

Should the Bolsheviks succeed in the domination of the Co- 
operatives it will be another blow to the possibilities of reconstruction 
of Russian economic life. 

4. NATIONALISATION OF INDUSTRY. 

First attempts at the nationalisation of industry were carried out 
at the Putilov (the Russian Krupps) and the Obukhov Gun Works 
near Petrograd. These works, in fact, provided the nucleus of the 
workmen's army under the Bolshevik regime, as they had also been 
among the first insurrectionists in the earlier revolution. 

The nationalisation of factories developed until it included all 
the Petrograd works, and was eventually extended to Moscow. 

Having ordained the nationalisation of industry, extraordinary 
measures were adopted by the Bolsheviks in their endeavours to secure 
apparent success for their schemes. When it was realised that factories 
could not survive the removal of the brains of the industry represented 
by the owners, managers, and staffs, laws were passed to " protect " 
the workpeople ; among others, a regulation that no workman could 
be dismissed on grounds of ill-health, incapacity, or idleness. Such 
questions had to be referred to the Workmen's Committee, who 
invariably sided with the employee. If a workman was called up as 
a " Red Guard " he was entitled to demand from his employer full 
pay during his absence on service, and in certain cases 70 per cent, 
of the workpeople being absent as Red Guards, the remainder declined 
to work on the ground that it was impossible to operate the factory, 
but demanded none the less full pay during their idleness. 

The technical staff in most cases followed the example of their 
employers in declining to serve except where poverty made such a 
course impossible. Attempts were made by the Soviets to enforce 
the attendance of the staff, who in such cases attended, but adopted 
the attitude of passive resistance. Wages increased and output 
decreased. One may mention the instance of a railway wagon works 
where, based on the number of men employed, the wages paid and the 
work done, a completed wagon cost 180,000 roubles. Gradually the 
owners, either ruined or realising the impossibility of continuing under 
these conditions, have surrendered their works to their Soviet masters. 

5. MIXING. 

(a) General. From 1914-1918, the mining industry passed through 
four phases 

(i.) 1914. When output was normal. 

(ii.) 1915-1917. Increasing output, qualified by periods of decrease 
owing to injudicious mobilisation of working hands. 

(iii.) 1917. The revolution. Rapid decrease in output and increase 
in cost of working. 



89 

(iv.) 1917. November to date. Increasing state of chaos. 
Nationalisation. Increase of wages to such an extent 
that the payment of workpeople had to be subsidised by 
the State. Output negligible. 

It is impossible to give in a short summary full details, but a few 
figures are quoted from reliable sources concerning key mining industries. 

(b) Coal. In the Donetz basin, on which industrial Russia mainly 
depends, the first revolution in 1917 resulted in a 13 per cent, decrease. 
The number of pits working in November, 1918, is given as 30, com- 
pared with 390 in normal times. Only the smaller pits were working, 
the Bolsheviks, either purposely or through negligence, having flooded 
the larger pits. As the district contains no spare plant or repairing 
units, it is impossible to resume work. The Donetz normally supplied 
about 1,505 million poods* per annum. 

Such reconstruction and resumption of work as was possible 
during Ukrainian (anti-Bolshevik) occupation has ceased in the face 
of the present Bolshevik menace. 

The following statistics show the terrible conditions : 

Tons. 
September, 1917, output . . . . . . 1,358,000 

October 1,136,000 

November 1,225,000 

Bolshevik regime 

December, 1917, output .. .. 811,000 
January, 1918 . . . . 491,000 

In the Ural mountains the coal production fell from a normal 
6-7 million poods monthly to 800,000-900,000 poods monthly, i.e., 
an 86 per cent, decrease. 

On the 23rd January, 1919, the Council of National Economics 
proposed to close down all factories, even arsenals, in order to devote 
all available coal to the railways. 

(c.) Iron. The principal ironfields of Russia are in the south 
the Krivoi Rog, supplying 75 per cent., and in the Urals. The Krivoi 
Rog district mined about 3,000,000 tons of ore per annum prior to 
the war, employing 23,000 hands. The following extract from the 
" Frankfurter Zeitung," 7th November, 1917, refers to ironworks 
in the Krivoi Rog : 

At the Gdantsevski Works only 400 workmen remain. 

The Nikopol Mariupol Works, \vhich had a normal monthly 
output of 500,000 poods, produced only 17,000 poods during 
April, 1918, and in May, 1918, work stopped entirely. 

At the Donetz- Yurievska, work has been at a standstill since 

May, 1918. 
At Briansk only 2,500 workmen remain out of 6,000, the normal 

number. 

The Bogoslavski district in the Urals decreased in output from 
250,000 poods per month to 200,000 and less. Up to 1st May, 1917, 

* One pood equals 36 11281 Ib. avoirdupois. 



90 

sums to the amount of 195,000,000 roubles had been advanced by 
the Government, but hitherto with no visible success in the restoration 
of the industry. 

(d.) Summary. The same history applies to copper, oil, manganese 
as has been touched on in iron and coal. The nationalisation, or 
rather total allocation to the local workpeople, of the works, was 
based on the firm belief that the profits shown in the past under 
business organisation would be maintained in the future. The saner 
elements among the workpeople and " commisars " realised that the 
pace in wages, &c., could not be maintained, but the extremists 
continued to agitate, and eventually the Government had to subsidise 
the industry with its " paper " money in order to placate the extremist 
elements among the workpeople. 

After November, 1918, owing to the rupture of relations with the 
Ukraine, and the Czecho-Slovak operations in the Urals, the Bolsheviks 
became dependent on the coal mines in the Moscow district. During 
the first six months of 1918 these mines produced 10,000,000 poods 
(161,300 tons) and the northern mines produced 400,000 poods per 
month, or together less than 2,000,000 poods per month, whereas 
Petrograd required 14,000,000 poods per month in normal times. 

6. AGRICULTURE. 

(a.) Grain. When we come to consider the great agricultural 
resources of European Russia our attention is again directed to the 
Ukraine, which area, in spite of unsatisfactory systems of land tenure 
and antiquated methods of farming, produced a large proportion of 
Russia's total exportable surplus of grain. It exported in 1913 some 
33,000,000 tons of grain and, in addition, this region accounted for 
80 per cent, of the normal production of beet sugar in Russia. 

Present production is hampered to a considerable extent, not 
merely by the original difficulties mentioned above, but by the unsettled 
conditions of labour and life generally produced by the war and the 
revolution. 

The pillage of private estates and stores of grain, coupled with 
the bad condition of transport, has deterred production, encouraged 
waste and prevented the collection and distribution of the produce 
available. 

These adverse conditions have been accentuated by the deficiency 
of agricultural machinery. Prior to the war, nearly two-thirds of the 
agricultural machinery used in the Ukraine (and its use was then 
increasing, and further increase is now urgent, having regard to the 
need for improved farming) was of Russian manufacture ; the 
factories having been subsequently converted to war purposes and 
being now unable, through difficulties of labour and material, to 
resume their former activities, the Ukrainian cultivators have for 
some time past been compelled to look to outside sources for their 
supplies as they will be equally compelled to do for some years to come. 

The available information as to the harvest of 1918, and as to 
stocks existing prior to that harvest, goes to show that production, 
although much reduced, is still substantial. In February, 1918, it was 
estimated that stocks of grain to the extent of some 4,000,000 tons 
probably existed in the Ukraine, and that efforts to remove these 
stocks to the Central Empires would meet with only a modest degree 



91 

of success, owing partly to the attitude of the peasants in refusing 
to part with their stocks, and in concealing them, and still more ' t'6 
the limited supply and poor condition of the available transport. 
Subsequently information has confirmed that the Central Powers 
have not obtained any considerable supplies from the Ukraine. 

The total area sown in the Ukraine by the end of the 1918 spring 
sowings has been officially stated to be as high as 80 per cent, of the 
normal, and this statement is probably but little exaggerated. 

Estimates of the yield of the 1918 harvest are somewhat variable,. 

On 31st August, 1918, the " Miinchener Neueste Nachrichten '' 
stated that the Ukraine harvest was above the average and that 
1,600,000 tons would be available for export. 

On 5th September, 1918, the '" Vossische Zeitung " reported 
that the summer wheat and rye crops range from inferior to positively 
bad, while barley and oats were no better. Winter cereals, on the 
other hand, were above-average, or good. 

On 18th September, 1918, " Vorwarts " published an estimate, 
compiled from official data, stating that the total Ukraine harvest 
would show a yield of 15,040,000 tons, of which the figures for the 
four principal cereals were as follow : 

Tons. 
Wheat ..-' 5,000,000 

Rye .. ..' 3,667,000 

Barley 2,840,000 

Oats .. .. 1,800,000 

Oh 2nd November, 1918, the " Pester Lloyd," publishing closely 
corresponding figures, compared them with those of 1912 (not a 
particularly good year), which showed that 1918- was about 25 pet- 
cent, worse in results. This report also stated that the exportable 
surplus would be 2,600,000 tons. 

On 1st January, 1919, it was reported by the British representative 
at Odessa that good stocks of grain were lying in the district south 
of the Dnieper, and west of a line running from Kherson to Perekop, 
while a large area was sown with winter grain. 

The harvest in Great Russia is stated to have been better than 
was expected, while in the Northern provinces a serious shortage 
exists of seed grain. 

(b.) Sugar. With regard to beet sugar, of which the Ukraine 
area under cultivation in 1917 was said to be 572,000 hectares, as 
compared with 750,000 in 1914, the 1918 area will certainly not have 
been greater than that of 1917. The figures for production (all Russia) 
are as follows : 

Cwts. 
1914-15 .. 38,788,000 

1915-16 . . . 35,867,000 

1916-17 26,432,000 

1917-18 20,572,000 

The only report available as to 1918-19 sugar production makes 
it probable that this will fall far below even the poor result of 1917-18. 



92 

(c.) Live-stock. With regard to the quantity of live-stock at 
present held in Russia, the Soviet authorities have asserted that stocks 
have actually increased under their regime, and have published 
statistics purporting to establish their assertions. Low as stocks 
must have been when the Bolshevik government was established, 
it is not possible that they can have increased or even kept their level, 
and the Soviet statistics must be regarded as fictitious or misrepresented. 
The Soviet authorities give no explanation as to how any increased 
stock has been, or can be fed, nor do they state how stocks have 
increased in face of the urgent demand for food in the towns and the 
consequent high prices to be obtained for meat. 

(d.) Summary. It thus appears that agricultural conditions in 
the Ukraine are improving subject to the serious obstacles presented 
by a lack of implements and machinery, insufficient and defective 
conditions of transport and in spite of unsettled conditions. 

That the position in the Ukraine is no worse and thus does not 
approximate to that obtaining in Northern and Bolshevik Russia 
must be attributed to the comparative independence from Soviet 
influence which the Ukraine has succeeded in maintaining. 

If, however, reports are true as to the gradual encroachment 
of Bolsheviks into Ukraine territory, a repetition of the state of affairs 
existent in North Russia is bound to occur. Inasmuch as under 
normal conditions South Russia practically fed North Russia the 
amount of wheat sent in from Siberia being proportionately small 
disorganisation in these southern provinces would remove all hope of 
immediate relief to Northern Russia, excepting such foodstuffs as might 
be imported from abroad. Reliance can hardly be placed on immediate 
relief from Siberian stocks, as, owing to railway disorganisation, a 
considerable period must elapse even after the downfall of the Bolshevik 
regime before Siberian supplies could be sent into Russia in any 
quantities. 

As a contrast between normal conditions and the consequences 
of Bolshevik control the following comparative statistics tell their tale. 

In pre-war times the grain situation was as follows : 

Tons. 

Russian Empire total production . . 64,500,000 
Total interior trading grain .. .. 20,000,000 
Consumption in producing area . . 37,000,000 

Total available for export . . . . 7,500,000 

Grain situation at beginning of 1918 : 

European Russia total production . . 43,500,000 
Siberia Russia total production . . 8,000,000 



Russian Empire .. .. 51,500,000 

Consumption in producing area . . 37,000,000 
Xon self-supporting districts of Northern 

Russia and Finland require . . . . 18,000,000 

Total available for export . . . . Nil 

Deficit in Supply 4,500,000 

The above is based on normal ration (Government estimates at 
2 pounds per man per day). 



93 

The Food Ministry estimates, 1917, demanded as a minimum : 

For the Army . . . . . . 645,000 tons per month. 

For civil population . . . . 484,000 tons per month. 

Minimum total . . 1,129,000 tons per month. 

The actual available supply proved in 1917 to be less than 50 
per cent, of this total. It must be remembered that these supplies 
were essentially dependent on Ukraine grain being available. It may 
be mentioned that the Government of Samara, which normally contri- 
buted 800,000-900,000 tons of grain to Russia's requirement, itself 
demanded help from outside in 1917. This was the state of affairs 
a year ago ; matters are now still worse, and even the Ukraine, according 
to later information, lacks seed grain for spring sowing. The only 
district approaching the normal is the Kuban. 

7. TRANSPORT. 

(a.) General. Without sufficient transport the existing Bolshevik 
regime is doomed, and they appear to have early realised the importance 
of obtaining control of the railways, although to this day they have a 
hard fight to maintain their domination, as is instanced by the hostile 
reception given to Radek when he attempted to address the Vologda 
Executive of the Railwaymen's Union. 

(b.) Rail transport. The railway personnel have shown a greater 
resistance to Bolshevism than any other branch of labour in Russia. 
This applies in the main to the operating executive the repair and 
workshops being contaminated at an early date. 

The Railwaymen's Union " Vikzhel " in the early days of Bolshevism 
vigorously combated extremist policy, but the Bolsheviks, by careful 
propaganda, gradually replaced the executive with men favourable 
to their views. 

The minor officials and men on the Nicholas Railway, Petrograd 
Ekaterinburg, are anti-Bolshevik but are obliged to conceal their views. 

A complete deadlock was reached in Moscow in December, 1917, 
owing to the political differences between the various sub-unions of 
railwaymen, causing thousands of wagons of food supplies to be left 
unloaded. Order was eventually restored by a British officer taking 
the matter into his own hands and appointing himself controller for 
the tkne being. As an instance of the state the railways were in in 
1917, an extraordinary Commission from Petrograd decided, in view 
of the food crisis in Russia, to run 20 pairs of trains per day on the 
Trans-Siberian line. The actual number run was 6 pairs. 

The present decay in the maintenance of rolling stock dates from 
the beginning of the war. A temporary increase of efficiency was 
produced by the introduction of American rolling stock, but owing 
to neglect and non-execution of running repairs as much as 37 per cent, 
of the American locomotives on the Siberian railway were out of action 
in February, 1918. 

The percentage in European Russia is probably still greater. 

In the Ukraine it was computed six months ago that from 45 
to 50 per cent, of the rolling stock required repair. Spare parts are 



94 

lacking .and the workshops could not cope with the demand, their 
output being diminished by the reduction of working hours, prohibition 
of overtime and abolition of piece-work. One of the most serious 
difficulties resulted from the scarcity of coal. 

The interference of the revolutionary committees in railway adminis- 
tration has not only encouraged disorder but has increased expenditure ; 
on the South Western Railway alone it was reckoned that 16,000 
superfluous employees were drawing pay at total annual rate of 46 
million roubles, while for the whole Ukraine system the total payable 
to unnecessary personnel was computed at 200 millions of roubles per 
annum. 

Under such disastrous conditions as is only to be expected, in spite 
of enormously increased rates the railways are working at a loss, and 
the deficit for 1918 on the railways of the Ukraine has been put at 800 
millions of roubles. 

(c.) River transport. The waterways of Russia, especially the 
Volga, were in normal times served by an efficient fleet of steamers 
and barges. The economic life of Russia is in fact bound up with 
the river and canal systems of the country, much of the oil and grain 
and practically the whole of the timber transport being effected by 
water. 

Nationalisation of vessels and the extremist attitude adopted by 
many of the " Artels "* of the crews, bargemen and lumberers, has 
brought about a serious decrease in the volume of raw materials and 
goods carried, and thus the valuable means of communication afforded 
by the river and canal systems fails to be adequately utilised. 

8. ECONOMIC PROSPECTS. 

From a consideration of the foregoing one is forced to the conclusion 
that the measures inaugurated by the Bolsheviks, and the means 
by which they are applied, can have but one end the bankruptcy of 
Government and the country. 

One may be tempted to wonder that present conditions have 
subsisted for so long. Though the Bolshevik regime must be approaching 
a debacle, such are the resources and natural wealth of the country that 
there is still scope for a continuance of present Bolshevik rule. 

So long as these conditions prevail the country is deprived of the 
benefits of trade and industry, and capital is destroyed. Other countries 
who were the purchasers of Russian raw materials are cut off from these 
sources of supply, at a time when the need for reconstructing and 
revictualling great areas of Europe would have rendered the produce 
of Russia of special value. 

Much of Russia's actual and potential wealth remains undiminished 
in value, while circumstances cause its exploitation to be impossible. 
This, however, does not apply to its agriculture, and during every 
month the position becomes more acute, so that eventually seed grain 
will have been consumed for food, stocks of livestock exhausted, and 
the difficulties of restoration and reconstruction of this great territory 
will be vastly increased. 

* Workmen's Associations. 



No. 61. 

Report from a reliable source, dated Petrograd, March 21. 

(Telegraphic.) 

STRIKES at the Putilov and other factories have been the main 
events of interest during the past week. 

The outbreak was economic rather than political. The cry for 
" Bread " gave place to a new cry, " Down with Lenin." 

Both the strikes and the rising were due in part to the instigation 
of the Social Revolutionary party. 

In the various workshops Bolshevism no longer keeps its hold, 
though a few factory committees endeavour to keep it alive. These 
committees are made up mainly of Communists, who maintain their 
power by manipulating the elections, and will even introduce total 
strangers in order to maintain a majority ; while they terrorise the 
workmen, and compel them to vote for the Soviet candidates. 

The workmen now regard the factory committees as Soviet spies, 
and believe that their words are passed on by agents, who claim to 
be Social Revolutionaries, and who are sent to the works in order to 
report on the so-called " crime " of political opposition. 

It is probable for this reason that the Social Revolutionaries had 
less to do with the rising than had the actual workmen, though the 
Bolsheviks would not admit this. 

On the 10th March a mass meeting was held at the Putilov Works ; 
10,000 men were present, and a resolution was passed, with only 22 
dissentients, all of whom were complete strangers unconnected with 
the works. The following extracts show the tenour of the resolution : 

' We, the workmen of the Putilov Works Wharf, declare before 
the labouring classes of Russia and the world that the Bolshevik Govern- 
ment has betrayed the high ideals of the October revolution, and thus 
betrayed and deceived the workmen and peasants of Russia ; that 
the Bolshevik Government, acting as formerly in our names, is not 
the authority of the proletariat and peasants, but an authority and 
dictatorship of a central committee of the Bolshevik party, self- 
governing with the aid of extraordinary commissions, Communists, 
and police. 

" We protest against the compulsion of workmen to remain at 
factories and works, and the attempt to deprive them all of elementary 
rights, freedom of the press, speech, meetings, inviolability of persons, 
&c. 

" We demand 

"1. The immediate transfer of authority to a freely elected Work- 
men's and Peasants' Soviet. 

" 2. The immediate re-establishment of freedom of election at 
factories and works, barracks, ships, railways, and every- 
where. 

" 3. The transfer of wholesale management to released workmen 
of the professional union. 



96 

" 4. The transfer of the food supply to Workmen's and Peasants' 
Co-operative Societies. 

" 5. The general arming of workmen and peasants. 

" 6. The immediate release of members of the original revolutionary 
peasants' party of Left Social Revolutionists. 

" 7. The immediate release of Marie Spiridonova." 

The carrying of the resolution was received with cries of " Down 
with dictatorship ! " " Down with the Kommissars ! " "To the 
Courts with the Bolshevik hangmen and murderers ! " 

The Government took steps to put down any further manifestations, 
and anyone found in the possession of the resolution was at once 
arrested. Various promises were made, and money, in the shape 
of " Kerenski " notes, was distributed by the Bolsheviks, but the 
workmen refused to be pacified, and incited their comrades to strike. 

On the 15th of March the Baltic, Skorokhod, and Tramway works 
came out on strike. 

The situation was so serious that Lenin came from Moscow and 
attempted to pacify the workmen by speeches and promises of an extra 
bread ration. He also promised that passenger traffic between Petrograd 
and Moscow should be suspended for four weeks, in order that the 
transport of supplies might be facilitated. 

His proposals were refused, and the workmen demanded his 
resignation. Zinoviev and Lunacharsky, the only two Kommissars who 
dared to address the workmen, had no better success. Zinoviev was 
greeted with cries of " Down with that Jew ! " and. was compelled 
to escape. Lunacharsky found it almost impossible to obtain a hearing, 
and eventually promised that the Bolsheviks would resign if the majority 
desired their resignation. 

The following couplet was placarded upon the walls of Petrograd : 

" Down with Lenin and horseflesh, 
Give us the Tsar and pork." 

A demand was made by the delegates of the Putilov Works 
that the resolution of the 10th March should be published in the 
" Northern Commune " ; but this was refused by the Kommissars 
of the Interior. 

On the 16th March Torin incited Bolsheviks to kill the Social 
Revolutionaries, and Zinoviev brought into Petrograd a number of 
sailors and soldiers of the Red Army. The force was composed of 
foreigners, mainly Letts and Germans. During the next two days 
300 arrests took place in the workshops, and suspected ringleaders 
and Social Revolutionaries were shot wholesale. 

Though order has been partially restored, and many workmen 
have been driven to work by means of threats, they are still incensed 
against the Bolsheviks, and demand the freedom of the press in order 
to voice their grievances. 



97 
APPENDIX. 



EXTRACTS FROM THE RUSSIAN PRESS. 



Extract from the " Krasnaya Gazeta " (Organ of Red Army), September I, 

1918. 

ARTICLE, entitled " Blood for Blood," begins in the following 
way : 

' We will turn our hearts into steel, which we will temper 
in the fire of suffering and the blood of fighters for freedom. We 
will make our hearts cruel, hard, and immovable, so that no mercy 
will enter them, and so that they will not quiver at the sight of a 
sea of enemy blood. We will let loose the floodgates of that sea. 
Without mercy, without sparing, we will kill our enemies in scores 
of hundreds. Let them be thousands ; let them drown themselves 
in their own blood. For the blood of Lenin and Uritski, Zinoviev, 
and Volodarski, let there be floods of the blood of the bourgeois- 
more blood, as much as possible." 



Extracts from Official Journal (" Izvestiya "), September, 1918. 

There are only two possibilities the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie 

or the dictatorship of the proletariat The proletariat will 

reply to the attempt on Lenin in a manner that will make the whole 
bourgeoisie shudder with horror. 

Assassination at Petrograd of Kommissar Uritski by Kannegisser 
Jew Dvoryanin, twenty-two years of age, student, formerly Junker 
of Artillery School. 

' Krasnaya Gazeta " writes : " Whole bourgeoisie must answer 

for this act of terror Thousands of our enemies must pay for 

Uritski's death We must teach bourgeoisie a bloody lesson. . . . 

Death to the bourgeoisie." 



Attempt on Lenin. 

Proclamation Issued by the Extraordinary Commission 
and signed " Peters." 

Proclamation states that " the criminal hand of a member of 
the Social-Revolutionary Party, directed by the Anglo-French, has 
dared to fire at the leader of the working class." This crime will be 
answered by a " massive terror." Woe to those who stand on the path 
of the working class. All representatives of capital will be sent to 
forced labour, and their property confiscated. Counter-revolutionaries 
will be exterminated and crushed beneath the heavy hammer of the 
revolutionary proletariat. 

Petrovski, Kommissar for Interior, issues circular telegraphic 
order reproving local Soviets for their " extraordinarily insignificant 
number of serious repressions and mass shootings of White Guards 
and bourgeoisie." An immediate end must be put to these grand- 
motherly methods. All Right Social-Revolutionaries must be imme- 

(1057) H 



98 

diately arrested. Considerable numbers of hostages must be taken 
from bourgeoisie and former officers. At the slightest attempt at 
resistance, or the slightest movement in White Guard circles, mass 
shootings of hostages must be immediate y employed. Indecisive and 
irresolute action in this matter on the part of local Soviets will be 
severely dealt with. 

TERRORISM. , 

The Council of the People's Commissaries, having considered 
the report of the chairman of the Extraordinary Commission* found 
that under the existing conditions it was most necessary to secure 
the safety of the rear by means of terror. To strengthen the activity 
of the Extraordinary Commission, and render it more systematic, 
as many responsible party comrades as possible are to be sent to work 
on the Commission. The Sov'et Republic must be made secure against 
its class enemies by sending them to concentration camps. 

All persons belonging to White Guard organisations or involved 
in conspiracies and rebellions are to be shot. Their names and the 
particulars of their cases are to be published. 

(" Northern Commune," September 9, 1918.) 

Tver, 9th September. The Extraordinary Commission has arrested 
and sent to concentration camps over 130 hostages from among the 
bourgeoisie. The prisoners include members of the Cadet party, 
Socialist- Revolutionaries of the Right, former officers, well-known 
members of the propertied classes and policemen. 

(" Northern Commune," September 10, 1918.) 

Jaroslav, 9th September. In the whole of the Jaroslav Government 
a strict registration of the bourgeoisie and its partisans has been organised. 
Manifestly anti-Soviet elements are being shot ; suspected persons are 
interned in concentration camps ; non-working sections of the popula- 
tion are subjected to compulsory labour. 

(" Northern Commune," September 10, 1918.) 

Atkarsk, llth September. Yesterday martial law was proclaimed 
in the town. Eight counter-revolutionaries were shot. 

(" Northern Commune," September 12, 1918.) 

Borisoglebsk, 16th September. For an attempt to organise a 
movement in opposition to the Soviet power, nine local counter- 
revolutionaries were shot, namely two rich land-owners, six merchants 
and the local " Corn King " Vasiliev. 

(" Northern Commune," September 16, No. 106.) 

Resolution passed by the Soviet of the First Urban District of Petrograd : 
" . . . . The meeting welcomes the fact that mass terror is being 
used against the White Guards and higher bourgeois classes, and declares 
that every attempt on the life of any of our leaders will be answered 
by the proletariat by shooting down not only of hundreds, as is the 
case now, but of thousands of White Guards, bankers, manufacturers, 
Cadets (constitutional democrats) and Socialist-Revolutionaries of 
the Right." (" Northern Commune," September 18, 1918.) 

* The Extraordinary Commission are responsible for the trials and executions, and 
for executions without trial. Their work is .sometimes done in camera. 



99 

In Astrakhan the Extraordinary Commission has shot ten Socialist- 
Revolutionaries of the Right involved in a plot against the Soviet 
power. In Karamyshev a priest named Lubimov and a deacon named 
Kvintil have been shot for revolutionary agitation against the decree 
separating the Church from the State, and for an appeal to overthrow 
the Soviet Government. In Perm, in retaliation for the assassination 
of Uritzki and for the attempt on Lenin, fifty hostages from among the 
bourgeois classes and the White Guards were shot (a few names are 
given). In Sebesh a priest named Kirkevich was shot for counter- 
revolutionary propaganda, and foi having said masses for the late 
Nicholas Romanov. (" Northern Commune," September 18, 1918.) 

The following telegram has been received from the Cavalry Corps 
Staff : " Additional arrests have been made in connection with the 
affair of former officers and Civil Service officials involved in preparing 
a rising in Vologda. When the plot was discovered they fled to Arch- 
angel and to Murmansk. The prisoners were caught disguised as 
peasants ; all had forged papers on them. The political department 
of the Corps has in its possession receipts for sums of money received 
by the arrested persons from the British through Colonel Kurtenkov. 
In connection with this affair fifteen have been shot, mostly military 
men. Among them were General Astashov, Military Engineer Bodro- 
volski, Captain Nikitin and two Socialist- Revolutionaries of the Left 
Sudotin and Tourba. Apart from these the Commander of the Expe- 
ditionary Detachment, the sailor Shimanski, who was not equal to 
the situation, was also shot." 

(" Northern Commune," September 19, 1918.) 

" To overcome our enemies we must have our own Socialist 
Militarism. We must win over to our side 90 millions out of the 
100 millions of population of Russia under the Soviets. As for the 
rest, we have nothing to say to them ; they must be annihilated." 

(Speech by Zinoviev : reported in the " Northern Commune," 
September 19, No. 109.) 

The work of the Extraordinary Commission is most responsible 
and calls for the greatest restraint of their members. Do they possess 
this restraint ? Unfortunately, I cannot discuss here whether and 
how far all the arrests and executions carried out in various places 
by the Extraordinary Commissions were really necessary. On this 

point there are differences of opinion in the party The absence 

of the necessary restraint makes one feel appalled at the " instruction " 
issued by the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission to " All Provincial 
Extraordinary Commissions," which says : ' The All-Russian Extra- 
ordinary Commission is perfectly independent in its work, carrying 
out house searches, arrests, executions, of which it afterwards reports 
to the Council of the People's Commissaries and to the Central 
Executive Council." Further, the Provincial and District Extra- 
ordinary Commissions " are independent in their activities, and when 
called upon by the local Executive Council present a report of their 
work." In so far as house searches and arrests are concerned, a 
report made afterwards may result in putting right irregularities 
committed owing to lack of restraint. The same cannot be said of 

executions It can also be seen from the " instruction " that 

personal safety is to a certain extent guaranteed only to members 



100 



of the Government, of the Central Executive Council and of the local 
Executive Committees. With the exception of these few persons 
all members of the local committees of the (Bolshevik) party, of the 
Control Committees and of the Executive Committee of the party 
may be shot at any time by the decision of any Extraordinary Com- 
mission of a small district town if they happen to be on its territory, 
and a report of that made afterwards. 

(From an article by M. Alminski, " Pravda," October 8, 1918.) 

Comrade Bokiv gave details of the work of the Petrograd District 
Commission since the evacuation of the All-Russian Extraordinary 
Commission to Moscow. The total number of arrested persons was 
6,220. 800 were shot. 

(From a report of a meeting of the Conference of the Extraordinary 
Commission, " Izvestia," October 19, 1918, No. 228.) 

A riot occurred in the Kirsanov district. The rioters shouted, 
"" Down with the Soviets." They dissolved the Soviet and the 
Committee of the Village Poor. The riot was suppressed by a 
detachment of the Soviet troops. Six ringleaders were shot. The 
case is under examination. (" Izvestia," November 5, 1918.) 

By order of the Military Revolutionary Committee of Petrograd 
several officers were shot for spreading untrue rumours that the Soviet 
authority had lost the confidence of the people. 

All relatives of 'the officers of the 86th Infantry Regiment (which 
deserted to the Whites) were shot. 

(" Northern Commune " (quoted from " Russian Life " (Hel- 
singfors) ), March 11, 1919.) 

TREATMENT OF THE BOURGEOISIE. 

Orel. To-day the Orel bourgeoisie commenced compulsory work 
to which it was made liable. Parties of the bourgeoisie, thus made 
to work, are cleaning the streets and squares from rubbish and dirt. 

(" Izvestia," October 19, No. 288.) 

Chembar. The bourgeoisie put to compulsory work is repairing 
the pavements and the roads. (" Pravda," October 6, 1918, No. 205.) 

If you corns to Petrqgrad you will see scores of bourgeoisie laying 

the pavement in the courtyard of the Smolny I wish you 

could see how well they unload coal on the Neva and clean the barracks. 
(From a speech by Zinoviev, " Pravda," October 11, No. 219.) 

Large forces of mobilised bourgeoisie have been sent to the front 
to do trench work. (" Krasnaya Gazeta," October 16, 1918.) 

A Camp for the Bourgeoisie. 

The District Extraordinary Commission (Saransk) has organised 
a camp of concentration for the local bourgeoisie and kulaki (the close- 
fisted). 

The duties of the confined shall consist in 'keeping clean the town 
of Saransk. 

The existence of the camp will be maintained at the expense of 
the same bourgeoisie. 

(" Krasnaya Gazeta " (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, November 6, 
1918, No. 237.) 



101 

DESERTIONS FROM THE RED ARMY. 
The Fight against Desertion. 

The " Golos Krasnoarmeytza " (Voice of the Red Armyman), 
of the 2nd February, issued at Yamburg by the Sixth Light Infantry 
Division, contains the following announcement : 

" In view of the mass desertions of Red Army men and the 
necessity of putting a stop to those citizens agitating among them 
against Soviet authority, and spreading among them false rumours, 
causing panic among the army and in the rear, and also concealing; 
deserters, persons who are in reality agents of Anglo-French capital, 
such persons are subject to arrest and to delivery to trial by the Military 
Revolutionary Tribunal as enemies of the workers' and peasants" 
government. 

" All town, district, and village Soviets of the frontal zone of 
the Yamburg district and of the neighbouring districts are instructed 
by the military Soviet of the division and by the Yamburg district 
Executive Committee to bring to the immediate notice of the Military 
Revolutionary Tribunal all cases of wandering Red Army men, to 
detain all persons spreading false rumours, to arrest private persons 
as well as Red Army men detected in selling or buying military arms 
and munitions, and to place on all roads barrier-guards and patrols 
for the apprehension of deserters. 

" The Military Revolutionary Tribunal brings to the notice of 
Red Army men that the time for words and exhortation has passed, 
and that the time has come demanding the conscious performance 
of the tasks of the Soviet Republic. 

' The concealment and the misplaced solicitude of workmen 
and peasants in relation to deserters are abetting the licentiousness 
and idleness in the ranks of the Red Army. 

" A deserter needs neither bread^nor a refuge, but a bullet. 
" Bread and a refuge are due only to the proletariat Red Army. 
" (The Military Revolutionary Tribunal at the Front.)" 

BOLSHEVISM AND SOCIAL DEMOCRACY. 
Arrest of the Labour Conference. 

An open letter of the delegates, kept in the Moscow Taganka 
Prison, to all citizens : 

" We, members of the Labour Conference, representing independent 
working-class organisations of various towns of Russia (Petrograd. 
Moscow, Tula, Sormova, Kolomna, Kulebaki, Tver, Nijni-Novgorod, 
Vologda, Bezshiza, Orel, Votkinski Zavod), arrested at our second 
meeting, on the 23rd July, in the ' Co-operation Hall/ feel it our public 
duty to protest before all citizens of Russia, against the false and 
calumnious reports published by the Bolshevik Government press 
on the 27th and 28th July. The Bolshevik Government takes advantage 
of the fact that it has muzzled the whole independent press and that 
we, members of the Labour Conference, are locked up in prison, under 
incredible conditions. 

" Our Conference was not ' a secret counter-revolutionary plot 
organised by well-to-do people and intellectuals/ &c., but a public 



102 

conference of delegates of working-class organisations, which was 
beforehand known to and discussed by the whole press, including 
that of the Bolsheviks. 

' The delegates were sent to the Conference not by ' Menshevik 
or Socialist-Revolutionaries' groups ' as falsely stated in the ' Izvestia,' 
which desires to deceive workmen who have not yet deserted the 
Government, but by assemblies of delegates from works and factories 
who have tens of thousands of electors behind them. The adopted 
general basis of representation was one delegate for 5,000 workmen. 
The ' Izvestia ' goes so far as to state shamelessly that the delegates 
Polikarpov and Pushkin, sent by the Tula workmen, were elected 
by 60 or 160 men, whereas they were sent by the Tula assembly, which 
consisted of delegates elected by the majority of Tula workmen. At 
places where independent workmen's organisations could not yet 
be set up, delegates to the Conference were sent by individual big 
factories. 

" Having calumniously described the delegates as impostors who 
represent nobody, the ' Izvestia,' with the insolence characteristic of 
the organs of the Tsarist regime did not stop at giving false information 
about things found on the arrested delegates in order to cast a shadow 
on their characters. Thus, it is reported that Comrade Berg was found 
.to be in possession of 6,000 roubles. As a matter of fact, he had only- 
-590* roubles. Comrade Leikin is stated to have had 160 roubles, and 
he had in fact 1 rouble 65 kopecks. The ' Izvestia ' further states that 
on Leikin the following things were found : a ring, diamonds, and a 
.gold watch, whereas all his ' jewellery ' consisted of an ordinary gun- 
metal watch, which it did not occur even to the prison warders to take 
away. 

' The Bolshevik Government has to resort to stupid, shameless 
lies to justify the preposterous arrests of the workmen's delegates who 
dared to show some independent organising initiative. 

' The conference of workmen's delegates was convened to make 
arrangements for the convocation of an All-Russian Labour Congress, 
and had held two meetings. The agenda of the Conference included the 
following items : Measures against the disintegration of the working- 
class movement ; what can be done to effect a concentration of its forces 
and its proper organisation ; arrangements for the All-Russian Labour 
Conference. But the Communist Government, just as its Tsarist 
predecessors, do not tolerate any symptoms of an independent working- 
class movement, because it is this movement which constitutes a 
menace to their power. In this movement they see a reflection of the 
food crisis, and, incapable of solving the State problems which they 
have before them, they resort to repressive measures directed against 
the leaders of the working-class movement. Workmen's organisations 
are subjected to unheard-of repressions. 

" Long live the working-class organisations ! 

" Long live their independence, their revolutionary and organising 
initiative ! 

" (' Signed ') A. N. Smirnov, workman of the Cartridge Factory, 
delegate from Petrograd ; N. N. Gliebov, workman of Putilov 

* At present equal to about 15/. 



103 

Works ; J. S. Leikin, delegate of the Assembly of Delegates 
of the Nijni and Vladimir districts. Workmen : D. V 
Zakharov, secretary of a trade union ; D. I. Zakharov. 
Sormovo ; V. I. Matveev, Sormovo ; A. A. Vezkalin, 
carpenter, member of the Executive Committee of the Lettish 
Social Democratic Party ; I. G. Volkov, turner, member of 
the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Union of Metal 
Workers ; A. A. Chinenkov, Nijni ; S. P. Polikarpov, Tula ; 
N. K. Borisenko, Petrograd Tube Works ; V. G. Chirkin, 
turner, member of the All-Russian Council of Trade Unions ; 
Berg, Electrical Works ; D. Smirnov, Arsenal, Petrograd ; 
Victor Alter, delegate of the Executive Committee of the 
' Bund ' (Jewish Socialist Party) ; Pushkin, workman of the 
Tula Small Arms Eactory, &c." 

(" Workers' International " : (organ of the Petrograd Committee 
of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party), August 7, 1918.) 

The imaginary dictatorship of the proletariat has definitely turned 
into the dictatorship of the Bolshevik party, which attracted all sorts 
of adventurers and suspicious characters and is supported only by the 
naked force of hired bayonets. Their sham socialism resulted in the 
complete destruction of Russian industry, in the country's enslavement 
to foreign capital, in the destruction of all class organisations of the 
proletariat, in the suppression of all democratic liberty and of all 
organs of democratic State life, thus preparing the ground for a bourgeois 
counter-revolution of the worst and most brutal kind. 

The Bolsheviks are unable to solve the food problem, and their 
attempt to bribe the proletariat by organising expeditions into the 
villages in order to seize supplies of bread drives the peasantry into 
the arms of the counter-revolution and threatens to rouse its hatred 
towards the town in general, and the proletariat in particular, for a 
long time to come. . . . 

In continuing the struggle against the Bolshevik tyranny which 
dishonours the Russian revolution, social democracy pursues the 
following aims : (1) To make it impossible for the working class to have 
to shed its blood for the sake of maintaining the sham dictatorship 
of the toiling masses or of the sham socialistic order, both of which 
are bound to perish and are meanwhile killing the soul and body of the 
proletariat ; (2) To organise the working class into a force which, in 
union with other democratic forces of the country, will be able to 
throw off the yoke of the Bolshevik regime, to defend the democratic 
conquests of the revolution and to oppose any reactionary force which 
would attempt to hang a millstone around the neck of the Russian 
democracy. . . . 

Forty delegates elected by workmen of various towns, to a con- 
ference, for the purpose of making arrangements for the convocation 
of a Labour Congress, have been arrested and committed for trial by 
the Supreme Revolutionary Tribunal, created to pass death sentences 
without the ordinary guarantees of a fair trial. They are falsely and 
calumniously accused of organising a counter-revolutionary plot. 
Among the arrested are the most prominent workers of the Social 
Democratic Labour movement, as, for instance, Abramovitch, member 



104 

of the Central Executive Committees of the Russian Social Democratic 
Labour Party and of the " Bund," who is personally well known to 
many foreign comrades ; Alter, member of the Executive Committee 
of the " Bund " ; Smirnov, member of last year's Soviet Delegation 
to the Western Countries ; Vezkalin, member of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Lettish Social Democratic Party ; Volkov, chairman of 
the Petrograd Union of Workmen's Co-operative Societies ; Zakharov, 
secretary of the Petrograd Union of Workmen of Chemical Factories ; 
and other prominent workers of the trade union and co-operative 
movement. 

We demand immediate intervention of all Socialist parties to avert 
the shameful and criminal proceeding. 

(Protest of the Social Democratic Labour Party and of the Jewish 
Socialist Party sent to the Executive Committees of all Socialist 
Parties of Europe and America, August, 1918.) 

The Extraordinary Commission of the Union of Northern Ccm- 
munes at a meeting of October 22nd, considered the legal cases 
connected with the sailors' mutiny of October 14th. It was found ort 
examination that the movement was organised by the Petrograd 
Committee of the Socialist Revolutionaries of the le.ft, the resolution 
passed by the sailors of the 2nd Baltic Squadron paving been framed 
with the assistance of members of the above Committee, approved of 
by the Conference of the party, which sent its greetings to the sailors. 
Apart from this, the resolution was printed on a cyclostyle in the 
premises of the above Committee, which delegated their party agitators 
to the sailors' meeting. At the head of the organisation were thirteen 
persons. Two escaped. All the others were sentenced by the 
Extraordinary Commission to be shot. 

(" Izvestia," October 31, 1918.) 

By the decision of the Extraordinary Commission the Socialist- 
Revolutionary, Firsov, has been shot. Firsov was executed for writing; 
and distributing leaflets in which the Socialist-Revolutionaries invited 
workmen to give allegiance to the Archangel Government. 

(" Northern Commune," September 18, 1918.) 

The Extraordinary Commission of the Province has arrested the 
leading members of the local organisation of Left and Right Social 
Revolutionaries for the spreading of proclamations. In connection with 
the discovery of the plot, some Left Social Revolutionaries have been 
arrested in Moscow. An agitation has been conducted in the Red 
Army for the overthrow of Soviet authority. Proclamations were 
distributed calling for a struggle against Soviet authority, for tne 
immediate organisation of committees and for the encouragement, 
through chosen commanders, of a campaign of terror against Trots ki 
and other prominent leaders of the Communist party. The agitation 
and the proclamations were without success. The responsible worker 
of the Kaluga Provisions Commissariat, the Left Social Revolutionary, 
Prigalin, was arrested. A rough draft of a proclamation, in the name 
of the party, calling for the overthrow of the Bolsheviks and the 
establishment of a coalition without the Bolsheviks, was found on hiiru 

(Russian Wireless, February 22, 1919.) 



105 

The Tribunal dealing with Mme. Spiridonova (the leader of the 
Social Revolutionary party, who was recently arrested on a charge of 
conspiracy against the Soviet authority) has decided, in view of the 
abnormal state of mind of the accused, to isolate her from all political 
and social activity for the duration of a year. 

Mme. Spiridonova is to be detained in a sanatorium, where she 
will be allowed facilities for recreation and intellectual work. 

(Russian Wireless, February 26, 1919.) 

Don't be like the " Old Masters." 

In one of the Sunday numbers of the " Krasnaya Gazeta " there 
was an article by comrade Kuznetzov under the title " The Eleventh." 
In this article he recalled how arrogantly, how appallingly, the old 
masters conducted themselves toward working-men. 

Yes, comrade Kuznetzov, it is unpleasant and humiliating to recall 
this gentry, but it is even more unpleasant and humiliating to meet the 
same kind of " old masters " at the present time. I know very many 
comrades who occupy various responsible posts in unions and com- 
mittees, and when you happen to turn to them with some enquiry or 
request for co-operation, they are no better than the masters of the old 
regime : they answer either rudely and arrogantly, or they do not 
answer at all. 

It is humiliating to see this at the present time. And I say to such 
comrades : " Don't be, if I may so express myself, like the ' old masters/ 
Go to meet the oppressed and the poor. Train yourselves in this spirit, 
and only then call yourselves Communists and protectors of the working- 
man. Hands off, all those who do not act as they speak ! " 

([Letter from a Working-man.] " Krasnaya Gazeta " (The Red 
Gazette), Petrograd, October 29, 1918, No. 230.) 



THE BOLSHEVIKS AND THE PRESS. 

The Suppression of the Paper " Mir " (Peace}. In accordance 
with the decision published in the " Izvestia " on the 27th July, No. 159, 
the Press Department granted permits to issue periodical publications 
which accepted the Soviet platform. When granting permissions, the 
Press Department took into consideration the available supplies of 
paper, whether the population was in need of the proposed periodical 
publication, and also the necessity of providing employment for printers 
and pressmen. Thus, permission was granted to issue the paper 
" Mir," especially in view of the publisher's declaration that the paper 
was intended to propagate pacifist ideas. At the present moment the 
requirements of the population of the Federal Socialist Republic for 
means of daily information are adequately met by the Soviet publi- 
cations ; employment for those engaged in journalistic work is secured 
in the Soviet papers ; a paper crisis is approaching. The Press 
Department, therefore, considers it impossible to permit the further 
publication of the " Mir," .... and has decided to suppress this 
paper for ever. ( i zve stia," October 17, 1918, No. 226.) 



106 

/ 

The Central Executive Committee has confirmed the decision to 
close the newspaper, " Vsegda Vperiod," as its appeals for the cessation 
of civil war appear to be a betrayal of the working-class. 

(Russian Wireless, February 26, 1919.) 



COMPULSORY PURCHASE OF NEWSPAPERS. 

To the Notice of the House Committees of Poverty. 

On 20th July of the present year there was published obligatory 
regulation No. 27, to the following effect : 

" Every house committee in the city of Petrograd and other towns, 
included in the Union of Communes of the Northern region, is under 
obligation to subscribe, paying for same, one copy of the newspaper, 
the " Northern Commune," the official organ of the Soviets of the 
Northern region. 

' The newspaper should be given to every resident in the house on 
the first demand. 

" Chairman of the Union of the Communes of the Northern region, 
Gr. Zinoviev. 

" Commissary of printing, N. Kuzmin." 

However, until now the majority of houses, inhabited pre-eminently 
by the bourgeoisie, do not fulfil the above-expressed obligatory regula- 
tion, and the working population of such houses is deprived of the 
possibility of receiving the " Northern Commune " in its house 
committees. 

Therefore, the publishing office of the " Northern Commune " 
brings to the notice of all house committees that it has undertaken, 
through the medium of especial emissaries, the control of the fulfilment 
by house committees of the obligatory regulation No. 27, and all house 
committees which cannot show a receipt for a subscription to 
the newspaper, the " Northern Commune," will be immediately 
called to the most severe account for the breaking of the obligatory 
regulation. 

Subscriptions will be received in the main office and branches of 
the " Northern Commune " daily, except Sundays and holidays, from 
10 to 4. 

(" Severnaya Kommuna," Petrograd, November 10, 1918, No. 150.) 

FREEDOM OF SPEECH. 

At the People's Court at Moscow was heard the case of Priest 
Filimonov, accused of circulating the book, " Who Governs Us?" 

In his book the author defamed the Soviet Government. The 
Court sentenced the reverend father (" batiushka ") to ten years of 
public work. 

(" Krasnaya Gazeta " (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 10, 
1918, No. 214.) 



107 

DECREE AS TO FREEDOM OF ASSOCIATION AND PUBLIC MEETINGS. 

1. All societies, unions, and associations political, economic, 
artistic, religious, &c. formed on the territory of the Union of the 
Commune of the Northern Region must be registered at the corre- 
sponding Soviets or Committees of the village poor. 

2. The constitution of the union or society, a list of founders and 
members of the committee, with names and addresses, and a list of all 
members, with their names and addresses, must be submitted at 
registration. 

3. All books, minutes, &c., must always be kept at the disposal of 
representatives of the Soviet power for purposes of revision. 

4. Three days' notice must be given to the Soviet, or to the 
Committee of the village poor, of all public and private meetings. 

5. All meetings must be open to the representatives of the Soviet 
power, viz., the representatives of the Central and District Soviet, the 
Committee of the Poor, and the Kommandatur of the Revolutionary 
Secret Police Force (Okhrana). 

6. Unions and societies which do not comply with those regulations 
will be regarded as counter-revolutionary organisations, and prosecuted. 

(" Northern Commune," September 13, 1918, No. 103.) 

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS. 

(a.) Wages. 
The Rise in Wages. 

In the last number of the " Narodnoye Khoziaystvo " (National 
Economy) are given the figures of the progress of wages in Russia during 
the decade of 1908-1918. 

In general, wages have risen during the ten years from 1200 to 
1300 per cent. 

The highest rise has taken place in the textile industry, in which it 
has reached 1736 per cent. In the leather trade the wages have gone 
up in the same time 1501 per cent., in the colour printing industry 1440 
per cent., in the writing paper industry 1434 per cent., in the metal 
and woodwork industries 1004 per cent., in the chemical industry 1069 
per cent., and in the food products industry 1286 per cent. 

It is necessary to remark that the greatest changes have occurred 
in those branches of industry which received smaller wages in previous 
years, as, for example, the textile industry. In this connection the 
wages of the women workers have risen relatively far in excess of those 
of the men workers. In the leather industry they have reached a 2500 
per cent, increase, in the textile industry 2127 per cent. 

(" Pravda," Moscow, October 24, 1918, No. 230.) 

(b.) Food. 

What they can get with their Higher Wages : The Bread Ration. 

The Commissary of Food of the Petrograd Labour Commune informs 
that on Friday, Saturday, Sunday, and Monday, for four days, the 



following products will be given, on the presentation ot the bread cards, 
according to category : 

1st category. 1 Ib. (Russian) of bread and 3 Ib. of potatoes. 

2nd category. | Ib. of bread and 2 Ib. of potatoes. 

3rd category. Ib. of bread and 1 Ib. of potatoes. 

4th category. \ Ib. of potatoes. 

(" Vooruzheny Narod " (the Armed People), Petrograd, October 9, 
1918, No 71.) 

Rations for October. 

For the month of October the second free coupon will be available 
for the following products : - 

1st category. 1 Ib. of fresh fish, | Ib. of leeks. 
2nd category. Two herrings, Ib. of leeks. 

(" Krasnaya Gazeta " (the Red Gazette), October 10, 1918, 
No. 214.) 

The Population of Petrograd. 

The population of Petrograd is continuing steadily to decrease. 
According to figures furnished by the Department of Statistics of the 
Food Commissariat, at the beginning of the month of October there 
were 1,120,354 food cards in the hands of the population. Of this 
number there were 308,156 cards in the 1st category, 424,558 in the 
2nd, 85,691 in the 3rd, and 1,669 in the 4th. 

(" Krasnaya Gazeta " (the Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 16,. 
1918, No. 219.) 

The Vegetable Ration for the Month of October. 

Owing to the increased arrival of vegetables in Petrograd during 
the month of October the third free coupon of the food cards will become 
available for the following, according to category : 

1st category. 3 Ib. of cabbage and 1 Ib. of onions. 
2nd category. 2 Ib. of cabbage and 1 Ib. of onions. 

Owing to technical conditions the vegetables will be given out 
according to their arrival at the stores of the Commissariat, that is,, 
simultaneously in all the districts. 

(" Krasnaya Gazeta " (the Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 22, 
1918, No. 224.) 

i 
The Commissariat of Food. 

The Food Commissariat of the Petrograd Workers' Commune 
informs the population that in February the adult population and 
children of all ages will be able to obtain on the presentation of their 
food cards (Coupon 14) : 

1st category. 1 Ib. of sand sugar. 
2nd category. | Ib. of sand sugar. 

(" Severnaya Kommuna," Petrograd, February 6, 1919.) ; 



UC SOUTHERN REGIONAL LIBRARY FACILITY 

Ostashkof. A 000 078 985 9 

In consequence of a complete absence 01 groats, white flour, and 
milk products, children suffer immensely. The mortality is great. 

(" Izvestia," November 2, No. 240.) 

(c.) Health. 

In the districts of the Viatka Government Spanish sickness is 
raging. There is no medical help, no drugs are available. The popula- 
tion, frightened by the high mortality, asks for help. There is an 
epidemic of grippe in Sitnir Volost ; 200 have died. Good agitators 
are urgently required. ( i zves tia," October 31, 1918.) 

Disease : Eruptive typhus. 

Last week there were 967 registered cases of eruptive typhus in 
Petrograd, as against 820 registered cases the previous week. 

(" Izvestia," Moscow, February 7, 1919, No. 28 (580).) 

(d.) Requisitions. 

At a plenary sitting of the Soviet of Workers' Deputies of the 
city region, in connection with events in Germany, a resolution was 
passed in favour of sending a greeting to the German proletariat, and 
promise of being in readiness for sending assistance in the form of arms 
and food. 

In connection with this, in view of the fact that this question is 
inevitably bound up with the security of our Red Army, the Soviet 
has decided to take the measure of requisitioning warm things belonging 
to the bourgeoisie for the Red Army. 

(" Krasnaya Gazeta " (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 11, 
1918, No. 215.) 

The collection of warm things without the 1,000-rouble fine has 
been prolonged until October 20, inclusive. 

(" Krasnaya Gazeta " (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, October 16, 
1918, No. 219.) 

(e.) Compulsory Labour. 
Compulsory Labour for Hawkers, Cabmen, &c. 

Within a few days a registration will be made of all hawkers, 
cabmen, and unemployed of both sexes. 

All these persons will be summoned to do urgent work caused by 
special conditions. 

(" Krasnaya Gazeta " (The Red Gazette), Petrograd, November 2, 
1918, No. 234.) 

The Central Committee of the Revolutionary Communist Party 
Informs all party organisations that all responsible workmen, Ukranians, 
Letts, White Russians, and comrades of other nationalities, will be 
freed from their local labours, and sent to their own country only by 
permission of the Central Committee. All secondary workmen will 
be freed by permission of the local organisations if their departure from 
their posts does not involve a breakdown of the local work. 

(Russian Wireless, February 5, 1919.) 



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